Callaghan L.C.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital |
Walker J.D.,Ysbyty Gwynedd
Anaesthesia | Year: 2015
Summary The risk of accidental over-dosing of obese children poses challenges to anaesthetists during dose calculations for drugs with serious side-effects, such as analgesics. For many drugs, dosing scalars such as ideal body weight and lean body mass are recommended instead of total body weight during weight-based dose calculations. However, the complex current methods of obtaining these dosing scalars are impractical in the peri-operative setting. Arbitrary dose adjustments and guesswork are, unfortunately, tempting solutions for the time-pressured anaesthetist. The study's aim was to develop and validate an accurate, convenient alternative. A nomogram was created and its performance compared with the standard calculation method by volunteers using measurements from 108 obese children. The nomogram was as accurate (bias 0.12 kg vs -0.41 kg, respectively, p = 0.4), faster (mean (SD) time taken 2.8 (1.0) min (vs 3.3 (0.9) min respectively, p = 0.003) and less likely to result in mistakes (significant errors 3% vs 19%, respectively, p = 0.001). We present a system that simplifies estimation of ideal body weight and lean body mass in obese children, providing foundations for safer drug dose calculation. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Zhang Q.,University of Liverpool |
Leong S.C.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital |
McNamara P.S.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital |
Mubarak A.,University of Liverpool |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2011
Regulatory T cells (Treg) diminish immune responses to microbial infection, which may contribute to preventing inflammation-related local tissue damage and autoimmunity but may also contribute to chronicity of infection. Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus is common in young children and can persist for long periods but it is unknown whether the presence of Treg in the nasopharynx contributes to this persistence. We have investigated the numbers and activities of Foxp3+Treg in adenoidal tissues and their association with pneumococcal carriage in children. Expression of Treg cell-related markers including Foxp3, CD25, CD39, CD127 and CLTA4 were analysed by flow-cytometry in adenoidal mononuclear cells (MNC) and PBMC from children. Unfractionated MNC or Treg-depleted MNC were stimulated with a pneumococcal whole cell antigen (WCA) and T cell proliferation measured. Cytokine production by MNC was measured using a cytometric bead array. Higher numbers of CD25 highFoxp3 high Treg expressing higher CD39 and CTLA4 were found in adenoidal MNC than in PBMC. Children with pneumococcus positive nasopharyngeal cultures had higher proportions of Treg and expressed higher levels of CD39 and CTLA-4 than those who were culture negative (-). WCA induced adenoidal Treg proliferation which produce IL10 but not IL17, and CD4 T cell proliferation in Treg-depleted MNC was greater in pneumococcal culture positive than negative children. Significant numbers of Treg with an effector/memory phenotype which possess a potent inhibitory effect, exist in adenoidal tissue. The association of pneumococcal carriage with an increased frequency of adenoidal Treg suggests that Treg in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) may contribute to the persistence of pneumococcus in children. Further studies to determine what component and mechanisms are involved in the promotion of Treg in NALT may lead to novel therapeutic or vaccination strategy against upper respiratory infection. © 2011 Zhang et al.
Gajjar A.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital |
Pizer B.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2010
We summarize data presented on the use of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with stem cell rescue for patients with recurrent medulloblastoma and other primitive neuroectodermal tumors as presented at an international consensus and state of the art workshop held in Milan in 2006. Eight, mainly institutional, studies were presented that included 159 patients who received HDCT of whom 22% were disease-free survivors at the time of reporting. Of those receiving HDCT and who relapsed having received previous radiotherapy, 17.3% were disease-free survivors at the time of reporting. However, from the two national studies that reported results from the time of relapse, only 4.2% were event free survivors. The outlook for previously irradiated patients with recurrent PNETs remains extremely poor and more effective therapeutic approaches are needed. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Nicholls S.G.,University of Ottawa |
Southern K.W.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital |
Southern K.W.,University of Liverpool
Pediatrics | Year: 2012
OBJECTIVE: In the United Kingdom, newborn blood spot screening proceeds on the basis of consent based on an informed choice. However, little is known about parent experiences of this process. This study was intended to explore parents' understanding of newborn screening and their experience of the consent process using a structured survey. METHODS: A mail survey exploring key components of consent was sent to parents whose children had been screened in the year before the study. A descriptive analysis of responses together with logistic regression was performed to identify variables that predicted parental likelihood to agree that they had made an informed choice to screening. RESULTS: Most parents indicated they understood why the heel prick was done, but only a third understood how conditions would be dealt with if found. Almost a third of parents reported that they did not feel they had a choice to decline screening, yet .70% felt they had made an informed choice. Logistic regression indicated previous children, understanding why the heel prick was done, having time to make a decision, and feeling they had a choice were significant predictors of feeling an informed choice had been made. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support previous studies that screening may be seen as a fait accompli. Analyses indicated that allowing time to make a decision (eg, by providing information during pregnancy, emphasizing the decision-making aspect, and clearly articulating the reasons behind screening) may help parents feel that they have made an informed choice. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Vaughan C.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery | Year: 2016
ABSTRACT: Craniosynostosis is defined as premature fusion of the cranial suture lines and is part of a syndrome in 15% to 40% of the patients. There is limited literature available regarding these childrenʼs ability to smell. Most of them will undergo numerous surgical procedures, some of which may alter their sense of smell, potentially leading to significant social as well as safety implications. Ethical approval was obtained for this pilot study. Children with syndromic craniosynostosis were recruited and underwent anterior rhinoscopy, prior to performing a smell test utilizing the Sensonic pediatric Smell wheel. The results were compared to an age-matched control group. Eight children with syndromic craniosynostosis participated in the study. Of a possible total score of 11, their mean average score was 6.6 and the median was 6. In comparison, the mean average score for the control group was 7.5 and the median was 7. Although the study group was small, this pilot study demonstrates that children with syndromic craniosynostosis have a similar ability to identify smells to an age-matched cohort. Further research can now be undertaken to see whether or not midface advancement procedures affect these childrenʼs sense of smell. © 2016 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.
Walton R.D.M.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics Part B | Year: 2016
Paediatric Monteggia-type injuries are complicated by treatment failure and posterior interosseous nerve palsy, without reliable predictive indicators. Outcome is considered to be good, with little patient-reported evidence. We propose novel radiographic parameters. A total of 33 Monteggia-type injuries were analysed. Posterior interosseous nerve palsy was strongly predicted by the Radial Head Displacement Index. The presence of two or more of three novel instability markers was associated strongly with treatment failure. Patient-reported outcome measures were almost uniformly excellent. We advocate the use of a new, inclusive, stability-based classification of Monteggia-type injuries to predict patients who require accurate internal fixation. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Arnold P.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital
Paediatric Anaesthesia | Year: 2011
Bleeding is a considerable clinical problem during and after pediatric heart surgery. While the primary cause of bleeding is surgical trauma, its treatment is often complicated by the presence of coagulopathy. The principle causes of coagulopathy are discussed to provide a context for treatment. The role of laboratory and point of care tests, which aim to identify the cause of bleeding in the individual patient, is also discussed. An attempt is made to examine the current evidence for available therapies, including use of blood products and, more recently proposed, approaches based on human or recombinant factor concentrates. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Curran A.L.M.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology | Year: 2015
This commentary is on the original article by Kelly et al. on pages 241-247 of this issue Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology © 2014 Mac Keith Press.
Procter F.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery | Year: 2010
Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration.
Wilkinson D.J.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital |
Farrelly P.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital |
Kenny S.E.,Alder Hey Childrens Hospital
Journal of Pediatric Urology | Year: 2012
Aim: To compare complication rates after distal hypospadias surgery using the tubularized incised plate (TIP) and Mathieu techniques. Methods: For this meta-analysis, the Medline (1990-2009), Embase (1990-2009) and Cochrane databases were searched using the keyword 'hypospadias'. Inclusion criteria were: i) primary repairs; ii) distal hypospadias; iii) paediatric case series; iv) standard Mathieu and TIP techniques; v) complication data obtainable from the paper. Cases were only included in the denominator for each complication if explicitly identified in the paper. Fisher's exact was used for statistical analysis, with P < 0.05 considered significant. Main results: 129 papers were selected for full analysis; 23 papers met the inclusion criteria comprising 1872 TIP repairs and 1496 Mathieu repairs. We identified an increased incidence of urethral fistulae with the Mathieu technique (3.8% vs 5.3%, P = 0.028); however, this is lost on subgroup analysis. An increased incidence of meatal stenosis was identified in the TIP group (3.1% vs 0.7%, P < 0.001). Conclusions: There is no clear consensus on the ideal method of repair for distal hypospadias. Both the Mathieu and TIP techniques have been shown to have low rates of postoperative complications. Comparison between series is difficult because of a lack of consistency in reporting complications and follow up. We advocate uniform standards for reporting outcomes of hypospadias. © 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.