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Holden, MA, United States

Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. was founded in 1894 as part of Worcester Polytechnic Institute . It is the oldest continuously operating hydraulic laboratory in the United States. Today, as an independent entity, Alden has become a recognized leader in the field of fluid dynamics research and development. Wikipedia.

Citron D.M.,Alden Research Laboratory
Anaerobe | Year: 2012

Use of molecular techniques to characterize microorganisms during the past 20 years has increased the numbers of anaerobic species and made identification using only phenotypic methods difficult. Some of the newly described species have been recovered from blood cultures, showing pathogenic potential, and posing a challenge for identification. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Goldstein E.J.C.,Alden Research Laboratory
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Purpose of review: Antibiotic therapy has the potential for intended as well as unintended consequences due to ecological effects that extend beyond the target pathogen. This review examines some of the collateral damage and collateral benefit that may occur when using antibiotic therapy. Recent findings: Antibiotics excreted in the gastrointestinal tract cause alterations of the indigenous flora. Such disruptions may increase the risk of colonization and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, including resistant species, with the potential for serious infection for an individual patient as well as possible hospital-wide dissemination resulting in local outbreaks of infection. For example, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and particularly associated diarrhea and colitis, is a potentially serious and growing problem in hospitals worldwide, and is associated with disruption of gut flora through use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially those with antianaerobic activity. Infection control measures and improved antibiotic stewardship are key measures for CDI prevention. Another example is the risk of intestinal colonization and overgrowth with resistant bacteria, which is heightened in surgical patients requiring antimicrobial therapy for intraabdominal infections. Results from two Optimizing Intra-Abdominal Surgery with Invanz studies (OASIS-I and OASIS-II) suggested emergence of resistant Enterobacteriaceae was less likely in these patients treated with ertapenem than in those treated with ceftriaxone/ metronidazole or piperacillin/tazobactam. Finally, recent studies have reported that increased use of a nonpseudomonal carbapenem such as ertapenem does not reduce the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to pseudomonal carbapenems, for example, imipenem or meropenem. In fact, data from one study showed increased ertapenem/decreased imipenem use was associated with improved susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to imipenem, probably due to decreased selective pressure for resistant species. Summary: Improper antibiotic use can be associated with detrimental effects related to the ecological impacts of these drugs. Improved antibiotic stewardship and appropriate infection control measures are key to minimization of the collateral damage associated with antibiotic therapy and may even have collateral benefits. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Achermann Y.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Goldstein E.J.C.,Alden Research Laboratory | Goldstein E.J.C.,University of California at Los Angeles | Coenye T.,Ghent University | Shirtliffa M.E.,University of Maryland, Baltimore
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2014

Propionibacterium acnes is known primarily as a skin commensal. However, it can present as an opportunistic pathogen via bacterial seeding to cause invasive infections such as implant-associated infections. These infections have gained more attention due to improved diagnostic procedures, such as sonication of explanted foreign materials and prolonged cultivation time of up to 14 days for periprosthetic biopsy specimens, and improved molecular methods, such as broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR. Implantassociated infections caused by P. acnes are most often described for shoulder prosthetic joint infections as well as cerebrovascular shunt infections, fibrosis of breast implants, and infections of cardiovascular devices. P. acnes causes disease through a number of virulence factors, such as biofilm formation. P. acnes is highly susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics, including beta-lactams, quinolones, clindamycin, and rifampin, although resistance to clindamycin is increasing. Treatment requires a combination of surgery and a prolonged antibiotic treatment regimen to successfully eliminate the remaining bacteria. Most authors suggest a course of 3 to 6 months of antibiotic treatment, including 2 to 6 weeks of intravenous treatment with a beta-lactam. While recently reported data showed a good efficacy of rifampin against P. acnes biofilms, prospective, randomized, controlled studies are needed to confirm evidence for combination treatment with rifampin, as has been performed for staphylococcal implant-associated infections. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Brook I.,Georgetown University | Wexler H.M.,Greater Los Angeles Veterans Administration Healthcare System | Wexler H.M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Goldstein E.J.C.,University of California at Los Angeles | Goldstein E.J.C.,Alden Research Laboratory
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2013

Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria recovered from selected cases can influence the choice of antimicrobial therapy. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has standardized many laboratory procedures, including anaerobic susceptibility testing (AST), and has published documents for AST. The standardization of testing methods by the CLSI allows comparisons of resistance trends among various laboratories. Susceptibility testing should be performed on organisms recovered from sterile body sites, those that are isolated in pure culture, or those that are clinically important and have variable or unique susceptibility patterns. Organisms that should be considered for individual isolate testing include highly virulent pathogens for which susceptibility cannot be predicted, such as Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp.; Bilophila wadsworthia; and Sutterella wadsworthensis. This review describes the current methods for AST in research and reference laboratories. These methods include the use of agar dilution, broth microdilution, Etest, and the spiral gradient endpoint system. The antimicrobials potentially effective against anaerobic bacteria include beta-lactams, combinations of beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. The spectrum of efficacy, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and resistance patterns against these agents are described. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Goldstein E.J.C.,Alden Research Laboratory | Goldstein E.J.C.,University of California at Los Angeles | Citron D.M.,Alden Research Laboratory | Tyrrell K.L.,Alden Research Laboratory
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

We determined the comparative activity of SMT19969 (SMT) against 162 strains representing 35 well-characterized Clostridium species in clusters I to XIX and 13 Clostridium species that had no 16S rRNA match. SMT MICs ranged from 0.06 to>512 g/ml and were not species related. SMT might have less impact on normal gut microbiota than other Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) antimicrobials. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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