Osborne M.J.,University of New Mexico |
Perez T.L.,Albuquerque Biopark |
Perez T.L.,Bureau of Reclamation |
Altenbach C.S.,Albuquerque Biopark |
Turner T.F.,University of New Mexico
Journal of Heredity | Year: 2013
Captive breeding and rearing are central elements in conservation, management, and recovery planning for many endangered species including Rio Grande Silvery Minnow, a North American freshwater cyprinid. Traditionally, the sole purpose of hatcheries was to produce as many fish as feasible for stocking and harvest. Production quotas are also an important consideration in hatchery programs for endangered species, but they must also maintain and maximize genetic diversity of fish produced through implementation of best breeding practices. Here, we assessed genetic outcomes and measures of productivity (number of eggs and larval viability) for three replicates of three mating designs that are used for this small, pelagic-spawning fish. These were 1) monogamous mating, 2) hormone-induced communal spawning, and 3) environmentally cued communal spawning. A total of 180 broodstock and 450 progeny were genotyped. Genetic diversity and egg productivity did not differ significantly among spawning designs (He: F = 0.52, P = 0.67; Ho: F = 0.12, P = 0.89; number of eggs: F = 3.59, P = 0.09), and there was evidence for variance in reproductive success among individuals in all three designs. Allelic richness declined from the broodstock to progeny generation in all breeding designs. There was no significant difference in the genetic effective size (regardless of the method used) among designs. Significantly more viable eggs were produced in environmentally cued communal spawn compared to the alternative strategies (F = 5.72, P = 0.04), but this strategy is the most difficult to implement. © 2013 The American Genetic Association.
Bradford C.M.,Albuquerque BioPark |
Tupa L.,Albuquerque BioPark |
Wiese D.,Albuquerque BioPark |
Hurley T.J.,Pinon Perinatal |
Zimmerman R.,Albuquerque BioPark
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013
Abstract: A 29-yr-old female western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was evaluated for low fertility and a midterm abortion. Laboratory testing included karyotyping, which revealed an unusual mosaicism for Turner syndrome with Triple X (47,X/49,XXX). This appears to be the first report of Turner syndrome in a great ape. In humans, Turner syndrome occurs in approximately 1 in 3,000 females, with half of those monosomic for the X chromosome. A small proportion is mosaic for a triple X cell line (3-4%). In humans, Turner syndrome is associated with characteristic phenotype including short stature, obesity, a broad chest with widely spaced nipples, webbing of the neck, and anteverted ears. This individual gorilla is significantly shorter in stature than conspecifics and is obese despite normal caloric intake. Individuals with Turner syndrome should also be screened for common health issues, including congenital heart defects, obesity, kidney abnormalities, hypertension, hypothyroidism, and diabetes mellitus. Animals with decreased fertility, multiple miscarriages, fetal losses, unusual phenotypes, or a combination of these symptoms should be evaluated for genetic abnormalities. © 2013 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.