Yozzo D.J.,HDR |
Osgood D.T.,Albright College
Estuaries and Coasts | Year: 2013
Benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, taxonomic composition, and surface flooding dynamics were compared among high and low elevation stands of narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia) and invasive common reed (Phragmites australis) at Iona Island Marsh, an oligohaline wetland, and Piermont Marsh, a mesohaline wetland, within the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve during 1999 and 2000. Overall, the benthic macroinvertebrate community at both sites was similar in composition and abundance to those documented from other low-salinity systems. Macroinvertebrate taxa richness was lowest in mesohaline common reed, but similar among common reed and cattail habitats in oligohaline wetlands. Total macroinvertebrate densities were greater at high-elevation compared to low-elevation reed stands at the mesohaline site during summer 1999 and spring 2000. Total macroinvertebrate densities were similar among both oligohaline vegetation types during all seasons, except for spring 2000, when lower densities were observed in low-elevation common reed. A weak positive relationship between macroinvertebrate density and depth of flooding suggests that surface hydrology may be influencing the observed patterns of macroinvertebrate density among the vegetation stands. These results suggest that benthic macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity may not necessarily be impaired in low-salinity wetlands experiencing invasion by common reed unless the change in vegetation is accompanied by a measurable alteration to physical conditions on the marsh surface (i. e., elevation and flooding dynamics). © 2012 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.
Phillips L.A.,Albright College |
Lindsay M.,Chestnut Hill College
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology | Year: 2011
This research investigates how individuals who reenter society from prison use coping strategies. Participants are incarcerated individuals who recidivated following a previous release from prison (n = 20). Participants examine their most recent reentry experience via an interview. The research question under investigation is, "What themes describe how individuals cope with reentry from prison to society?" Data and results combine qualitative and quantitative analysis methods. The predominant coping strategy for dealing with reentry barriers is avoidance. There is a defined process experienced by participants, which is initial optimism about release, followed by craving substances, facing practical barriers, and/or feeling overwhelmed. This eventually results in avoidance of managing problems and emotions and substance abuse relapse, which culminates in recidivism. © 2011 SAGE Publications.
Feigenson K.A.,Rutgers University |
Feigenson K.A.,Albright College |
Keane B.P.,Rutgers University |
Roche M.W.,Rutgers University |
Silverstein S.M.,Rutgers University
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2014
Contour integration is a fundamental visual process that recovers object structure by representing spatially separated edge elements as a continuous contour or shape boundary. Clinically stable persons with schizophrenia have repeatedly been shown to be impaired at contour integration but it is unclear whether this process varies with clinical state or whether it arises as early as the first episode of psychosis. To consider these issues, we administered a contour integration test to persons with chronic schizophrenia and to those with a first episode of psychosis. The test was administered twice-once at admission to short term psychiatric hospitalization and once again at discharge. A well-matched healthy control group was also tested across the same time points. We found that contour integration performance improved to the same degree in all groups over time, indicating that there were no recovery effects over and above normal practice effects. Moreover, the schizophrenia group demonstrated poorer contour integration than the control group and the first episode group exhibited intermediate performance that could not be distinguished from the other groups. These results suggest that contour integration ability does not vary as a function of short-term changes in clinical state, and that it may become further impaired with an increased number of psychotic episodes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Markle T.F.,University of Washington |
Markle T.F.,Uppsala University |
Rhile I.J.,University of Washington |
Rhile I.J.,Albright College |
Mayer J.M.,University of Washington
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011
To test the effect of varying the proton donor-acceptor distance in proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, the oxidation of a bicyclic amino-indanol (2) is compared with that of a closely related phenol with an ortho CPh 2NH 2 substituent (1). Spectroscopic, structural, thermochemical, and computational studies show that the two amino-phenols are very similar, except that the O⋯N distance (d ON) is >0.1 Å longer in 2 than in 1. The difference in d ON is 0.13 ± 0.03 Å from X-ray crystallography and 0.165 Å from DFT calculations. Oxidations of these phenols by outer-sphere oxidants yield distonic radical cations •OAr-NH 3 + by concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET). Simple tunneling and classical kinetic models both predict that the longer donor-acceptor distance in 2 should lead to slower reactions, by ca. 2 orders of magnitude, as well as larger H/D kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). However, kinetic studies show that the compound with the longer proton-transfer distance, 2, exhibits smaller KIEs and has rate constants that are quite close to those of 1. For example, the oxidation of 2 by the triarylamminium radical cation N(C 6H 4OMe) 3 •+ (3a +) occurs at (1.4 ± 0.1) × 10 4 M -1 s -1, only a factor of 2 slower than the closely related reaction of 1 with N(C 6H 4OMe) 2(C 6H 4Br) •+ (3b +). This difference in rate constants is well accounted for by the slightly different free energies of reaction: ΔG° (2 + 3a +) = +0.078 V versus ΔG° (1 + 3b +) = +0.04 V. The two phenol-amines do display some subtle kinetic differences: for instance, compound 2 has a shallower dependence of CPET rate constants on driving force (Brønsted α, Δ ln(k)/Δ ln(K eq)). These results show that the simple tunneling model is not a good predictor of the effect of proton donor-acceptor distance on concerted-electron transfer reactions involving strongly hydrogen-bonded systems. Computational analysis of the observed similarity of the two phenols emphasizes the importance of the highly anharmonic O⋯H⋯N potential energy surface and the influence of proton vibrational excited states. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Seidman G.,Albright College
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2014
The present research examined correlates of "true self" expression to offline friends on Facebook. The "true self" (McKenna et al., 2002) consists of qualities an individual currently possesses but does not normally express to others. In Study 1, 184 undergraduates completed an online survey assessing "true self" expression to their friends online and reported the frequency of various Facebook activities. True self expression was positively correlated with using Facebook for communicating with others, general self-disclosure, emotional disclosure, attention-seeking, and acceptance-seeking, but was unrelated to seeking connection with and expressing caring for others. In Study 2, 41 undergraduates completed the "true self" measure and their Facebook profiles were saved and coded. True self expression was positively correlated with frequency of posting on others' walls, but not posting on one's own wall or receiving posts from others. Finally, true self expression was positively associated with the level of personal disclosure of participants' wall posts. These results suggest that those who feel able to express their "true self" online are more active on Facebook, have more self-oriented motivations for posting, and post more personally revealing and emotional content. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.