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Azizi G.,Alborz University of Medical Science | Boghozian R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mirshafiey A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2014

Angiogenesis is an important phenomenon in the pathogenesis of some diseases, such as numerous types of tumors and autoimmunity, and also a number of soluble and cell-bound factors may stimulate neovascularization in inflammatory reaction processes. Here, by highlighting the significance of angiogenesis reaction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we will mainly focus on the role of various growth factors, cytokines, enzymes, cells, hypoxic conditions and transcription factors in the angiogenic process and we will then explain some therapeutic strategies based on blockage of angiogenesis and modification of the vascular pathology in RA. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source


Azizi G.,Alborz University of Medical Science
International journal of rheumatic diseases | Year: 2013

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the sequestration of various leukocyte subpopulations within both the developing pannus and synovial space. The chronic nature of this disease results in inflammation of multiple joints, with subsequent destruction of the joint cartilage and erosion of bone. Identification of T helper (Th)17 cells led to breaking the dichotomy of the Th1/Th2 axis in immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as RA, and its experimental model, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Th17 cells produce cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-17, IL-6, IL-21, IL-22 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, with pro-inflammatory effects, which appear to have a role in immunopathogenesis of RA. Regarding the wide ranging production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by Th17 cells, it is expected that Th17 cell could be a potent pathogenic factor in disease immunopathophysiology. Thus the identification of effector mechanisms used by Th17 cells in induction of disease lesions may open new prospects for designing a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of RA. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source


Azizi G.,Alborz University of Medical Science | Khannazer N.,University of Tehran | Mirshafiey A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias | Year: 2014

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and leading cause of dementia, which begins with impaired memory. The neuropathological hallmarks of AD include destructive alterations of neurons by neurofibrillary tangles, neuritic amyloid plaques, and neuroinflammatory process in the brain. Chemokines have a major role in inflammatory cell attraction and glial cell activation and/or modulation in the central nervous system. Moreover, the clinical and immunopathological evidence could show dual key role of chemokines in their pro- and anti-inflammatory properties in AD. However, their effects in neurodegeneration and/or neuroprotection remain an area of investigation. This review article provides an overview of characteristic, cellular source and activity of chemokines, and their roles in neuronal glial cell interaction in AD. © The Author(s) 2014. Source


Ahmadi K.,Alborz University of Medical Science
Chinese journal of traumatology = Zhonghua chuang shang za zhi / Chinese Medical Association | Year: 2013

Since appropriate and time-table methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients'outcome, we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management. A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly selected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. On the first day, we assessed interns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients. After 2 days of ATLS training, we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day. The two findings, pre- and post- ATLS periods, were compared through SPSS version 15.0 software. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Our findings showed that interns'ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course. On the fourth day after training, there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures, the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P less than 0.001, P equal to 0.016 and P equal to 0.01 respectively). ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns. Source


Farid S.S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Azizi G.,Alborz University of Medical Science | Mirshafiey A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

One of the most important serological discoveries in rheumatology in recent years has been the characterization of autoantigens in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) containing the amino acid citrulline. There are many citrullinated proteins in the inflamed RA synovium. Rheumatoid factor (RF), which is the immunologic hallmark of RA, is not specific for RA, as it is found in 5% of healthy individuals and in 10-20% of those over the age of 65 years. RFs are of low titer in early disease stages when a clear diagnosis is often not yet possible; But anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) can be found early in the disease course of RA, even years before the onset of clinical symptoms. The identification of citrullinated epitopes led to the development of the first and later second generation anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody assays. Anti-CCP2 antibody has shown a specificity of 98% in sera from patients with established RA and 96% in sera from subjects with early RA. Anti-CCP can predict erosive disease, therefore could be a good serological marker for RA diagnosis. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

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