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Ahmadi K.,Alborz University of Medical science
Chinese journal of traumatology = Zhonghua chuang shang za zhi | Year: 2016

PURPOSE: Shoulder dislocation is a common joint dislocation managed by the emergency physicians in the emergency departments. Pre- and post-reduction radiographic examinations have long been the standard practice to confirm the presence of dislocation and the successful reduction. However, shoulder ultrasonography has recently been proposed as an alternative to the radiographic examination. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of ultrasonography in evaluating proper reduction of the dislocated joint.METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. All patients with confirmed anterior shoulder dislocation were examined by both ultrasonography and radiography after the attempt for reduction of the dislocated joint. The examiners were blinded to the result of the other imaging modality. Results of the two methods were then compared.RESULTS: Overall, 108 patients with confirmed anterior shoulder dislocation were enrolled in the study. Ninety-one (84.3%) of the patients were males. Mean age of the participants was (30.11 ± 11.41) years. The majority of the patients had a recurrent dislocation. Bedside ultrasonography showed a sensitivity of 53.8% (95% CI: 29.1%-76.8%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 96.1%-100%) in detecting inadequate reductions. The results of ultrasonography had a statistically significant agreement with the results of radiography (Kappa = 0.672, p < 0.001).CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the sensitivity of post-reduction ultrasound is not sufficient for it to serve as a substitute for radiography.


Zibaei M.,Alborz University of Medical science
Current cardiology reviews | Year: 2017

Toxocariasis is the clinical term used to describe human infection with either the dog ascarid Toxocara canis or the feline ascarid Toxocara cati. As with other helminths zoonoses, the infective larvae of these Toxocara species cannot mature into adults in the human host. Instead, the worms wander through organs and tissues, mainly the liver, lungs, myocardium, kidney and central nervous system, in a vain attempt to find that, which they need to mature into adults. The migration of these immature nematode larvae causes local and systemic inflammation, resulting in the "larva migrans" syndrome. The clinical manifestations of toxocariasis are divided into visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans and neurotoxocariasis. Subclinical infection is often referred to as covert toxocariasis. One of the primary causes of death all around the world is cardiovascular disease that accounted for up to 30 percent of all-cause mortality. Cardiovascular disease and more precisely atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is predicted to remain the single leading cause of death (23.3 million deaths by 2030). A-quarter of people presenting the disease does not show any of the known cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, there is considerable interest in looking for novel components affecting cardiovascular health, especially for those that could improve global cardiovascular risk prediction. This review endeavours to summarize the clinical aspects, new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives of toxocaral disease with cardiovascular manifestations.


Ashabi G.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | Khodagholi F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Khalaj L.,Alborz University of Medical science | Goudarzvand M.,Alborz University of Medical science | Nasiri M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Metabolic Brain Disease | Year: 2014

Here, we have investigated the effect of metformin pretreatment in the rat models of global cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia which leads to brain dysfunction is one of the main causes of neurodegeneration and death worldwide. Metformin is used in clinical drug therapy protocols of diabetes. It is suggested that metformin protects cells under hypoxia and ischemia in non-neuronal contexts. Protective effects of metformin may be modulated via activating the AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). Our results showed that induction of 30 min global cerebral I/R injury using 4-vesseles occlusion model led to significant cell death in the rat brain. Metformin pretreatment (200 mg kg/once/day, p.o., 2 weeks) attenuated apoptotic cell death and induced mitochondrial biogenesis proteins in the ischemic rats, analyzed using histological and Western blot assays. Besides, inhibition of AMPK by compound c showed that metformin resulted in apoptosis attenuation via AMPK activation. Interestingly, AMPK activation was also involved in the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis proteins using metformin, inhibition of AMPK by compound c reversed such effect, further supporting the role of AMPK upstream of mitochondrial biogenesis proteins. In summary, Metformin pretreatment is able to modulate mitochondrial biogenesis and apoptotic cell death pathways through AMPK activation in the context of global cerebral ischemia, conducting the outcome towards neuroprotection. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.


Ahmadi K.,Alborz University of Medical science
Chinese journal of traumatology = Zhonghua chuang shang za zhi / Chinese Medical Association | Year: 2013

Since appropriate and time-table methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients'outcome, we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management. A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly selected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. On the first day, we assessed interns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients. After 2 days of ATLS training, we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day. The two findings, pre- and post- ATLS periods, were compared through SPSS version 15.0 software. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Our findings showed that interns'ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course. On the fourth day after training, there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures, the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P less than 0.001, P equal to 0.016 and P equal to 0.01 respectively). ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns.


Azizi G.,Alborz University of Medical science
International journal of rheumatic diseases | Year: 2013

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the sequestration of various leukocyte subpopulations within both the developing pannus and synovial space. The chronic nature of this disease results in inflammation of multiple joints, with subsequent destruction of the joint cartilage and erosion of bone. Identification of T helper (Th)17 cells led to breaking the dichotomy of the Th1/Th2 axis in immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as RA, and its experimental model, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Th17 cells produce cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-17, IL-6, IL-21, IL-22 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, with pro-inflammatory effects, which appear to have a role in immunopathogenesis of RA. Regarding the wide ranging production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by Th17 cells, it is expected that Th17 cell could be a potent pathogenic factor in disease immunopathophysiology. Thus the identification of effector mechanisms used by Th17 cells in induction of disease lesions may open new prospects for designing a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of RA. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Azizi G.,Alborz University of Medical science | Boghozian R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mirshafiey A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2014

Angiogenesis is an important phenomenon in the pathogenesis of some diseases, such as numerous types of tumors and autoimmunity, and also a number of soluble and cell-bound factors may stimulate neovascularization in inflammatory reaction processes. Here, by highlighting the significance of angiogenesis reaction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we will mainly focus on the role of various growth factors, cytokines, enzymes, cells, hypoxic conditions and transcription factors in the angiogenic process and we will then explain some therapeutic strategies based on blockage of angiogenesis and modification of the vascular pathology in RA. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Pakravan N.,Alborz University of Medical science
Oncology Reviews | Year: 2013

Microenvironmental elements can directly contribute to the induction and the maintenance of tumor. Oxygen is the main element in the cell microenvironment and hypoxia can affect the process of tumorigenesis. In response to hypoxia, cells change their pattern and characteristics. These changes suggest that it is not just adaptation, but some sort of cell defense against hypoxia. If hypoxia is corrected, then cell defense mechanisms are interrupted. An examination of the process of tumorigenesis helps to design better therapeutic strategies. A systematic review of the English literature was conducted by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and ISI Web databases for studies on changes that defend and help cells to live in a hypoxic microenvironment. Cells respond to hypoxia by de-differentiation and an increase in heat shock proteins. Angiogenesis and deviation of inflammatory response in favor of hypoxic cell survival also defend and save the oxygen-starved cells from death. Finally, anti-angiogenic therapies and more hypoxia enhance metastasis, as tumors with low oxygen concentration are more malignant than tumors with high oxygen concentration. All these enable cells to migrate away from low oxygen areas and seek a more conducive microenvironment. Therapies that make the microenvironment more hypoxic need to be revised. This has been done for antiangiogenic therapies, previously considered to be anti-tumor approaches. Effective therapies may be correcting therapies which direct the tumor microenvironment towards natural physical/chemical condition. Correcting therapies either bring back tumor cells to a normal form (correct tumor cells) or help the immune system to eradicate tumor cells which can not be corrected. © Copyright N. Pakravan, 2012.


Farid S.S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Azizi G.,Alborz University of Medical science | Mirshafiey A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

One of the most important serological discoveries in rheumatology in recent years has been the characterization of autoantigens in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) containing the amino acid citrulline. There are many citrullinated proteins in the inflamed RA synovium. Rheumatoid factor (RF), which is the immunologic hallmark of RA, is not specific for RA, as it is found in 5% of healthy individuals and in 10-20% of those over the age of 65 years. RFs are of low titer in early disease stages when a clear diagnosis is often not yet possible; But anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) can be found early in the disease course of RA, even years before the onset of clinical symptoms. The identification of citrullinated epitopes led to the development of the first and later second generation anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody assays. Anti-CCP2 antibody has shown a specificity of 98% in sera from patients with established RA and 96% in sera from subjects with early RA. Anti-CCP can predict erosive disease, therefore could be a good serological marker for RA diagnosis. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Azizi G.,Alborz University of Medical science | Mirshafiey A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery | Year: 2013

Imatinib mesylate is a selective protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which can inhibit BCR/Abl, PDGF-R, c-KIT, c-fms, TCR/Abl, Lck, FLT-3 and MAPKs activities on various cell types. On immune system, imatinib has antiproliferative activity and immunomodulatory effects in lymphocytes, macrophages, mast cells and dendritic cells with abrogating multiple signal transduction pathways involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases e.g. inhibiting IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17 pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMPs secretion. To date, the efficacy of imatinib in numerous animal model of autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune diabetes and glomerulonephritis) has been demonstrated, but application of this drug in human autoimmune diseases should be tested in future clinical trials. This review provides an update on the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate in treatment of autoimmune diseases and its related recent patents that could be developed as a novel and available therapy for the management of the autoimmunity improvement. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.


Firoozeh F.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Saffari M.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Neamati F.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Zibaei M.,Alborz University of Medical science
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a common cause of ascending urinary tract infections including cystitis and pyelonephritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate virulence genes among Escherichia coli isolated from patients with cystitis and pyelonephritis. Methods: Between December 2012 and June 2013, 150 E. coli isolates from hospitalized patients with pyelonephritis (n = 72) and cystitis (n = 78) were collected at Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan. A PCR assay was used to evaluate the presence of virulence genes including pap, hly, aer, sfa, cnf, afa, traT, and pathogenicity island (PAI) markers in isolates. Results: Of the total 150 UPEC isolates, 130 (86.7%) were found to carry the virulence genes studied. Nineteen different virulence patterns were identified. The most prevalent virulence pattern was UPEC including traT-PAI operons. The pap, traT, aer, hly, and PAI operons were more prevalent among patients with pyelonephritis than cystitis, and the sfa, afa, and cnf genes were not detected in any of the isolates. Conclusions: Higher virulence gene diversity was found among pyelonephritis UPEC isolates in comparison to cystitis UPEC isolates, showing that UPEC strains that cause pyelonephritis need more virulence factors. © 2014 The Authors.

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