Santiago, Chile

Alberto Hurtado University
Santiago, Chile

Alberto Hurtado University is a Jesuit university located in downtown Santiago. Established in 1997, the university was created from the merger of three separate institutes,Instituto Latinoamericano de Doctrina y Estudios Sociales , the Centro de Investigación, Desarrollo de la Educación , and the Fundación Educacional Roberto Bellarmino. The university is named after a famous Chilean Jesuit Saint, Father Alberto Hurtado. Wikipedia.

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This article establishes a theoretical view and reflection with regards to inhabiting the barbarian city based on ethnographic evidence. Starting from the case of La Chimba in Santiago (Fondecyt [National Scientific and Technological Development Fund in Spanish] No. 1095083), the thesis of another form to inhabit where the chaos of the fragment represents the unity for the shelter of its inhabitants, is developed. This article emphasizes that the urban fact, as a social reality, owes its possibility to exist to these physical and symbolic border territories. To look back at the barbarian city is to admit that our cities have been made in these mirror games: between what is desired and denied, the center of power and what is outside this power. And the evidence that no urban reality exists, that it does not arise in this historically built tension. The challenge happens to be decoding these historical and urban processes that, not wanting to engage in an essentialist debate makes the barbarian city a landscape of otherness of memories and sovereignties, in permanent motion and dispute with the city itself, the city of the center of power and hegemony.

Ureta S.,Alberto Hurtado University
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2016

How do we practically deal with the waste produced by industrial processes? Until now this question has overwhelmingly been answered in one way: through the deployment of different kinds of waste management programs, technology-based top-down actions for waste whose ultimate aim is to make it disappear both physically by leaving it in fully enclosed dumps and politically by eliminating it as a matter of concern that must be dealt with. Due to the multiple setbacks that this approach has faced in terms of large spills and continual pollution, this paper states the need to consider a parallel set of practices that have been enacted, that is, the practice of caring for waste. Based on current developments in science and technology studies, care is presented as a way to deal with waste that, based on everyday practices and the inescapability of failure, proposes temporary and experimental ways to involve all the concerned parties in the search for alternative ways to live with our waste, in material, ethical and political terms. In order to explore the challenges that such an approach entails this paper will present some examples of caring for waste developed by the personnel of a large copper mine located in central Chile. © 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.

Navarro L.,Alberto Hurtado University
Journal of International Trade and Economic Development | Year: 2012

This article analyzes changes in the product mix by Chilean manufacturing plants in the period 1996-2003. Three quarters of the surviving plants changed the set of products produced and more than three quarters of the exporting plants changed the mix of products they exported during the sample period. Plants that changed their product mix contributed 85% of the aggregate growth in real sales of surviving plants between 1996 and 2003. Finally, and in contrast to the US evidence, there is a negative correlation between revenue per product and the number of products. Apart from this, new evidence consistent with recent models of multi-product heterogeneous firms and trade is provided. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Marquez F.,Alberto Hurtado University
Urbani Izziv | Year: 2011

This paper discusses research carried out in Santiago, Chile, and addresses the origin and construction of urban identities in this segregated city of the twenty-first century. Based on sociological and ethnographic evidence, urban identity-building processes are analysed by observing the occupation, use and appropriation of territory. The hypothesis is that, despite evidence of segregation, modernisation and globalisation, urban people reinvent lifestyles within their territories in order to harmonise their bonds of affection and belonging by using distinguishing markings or "brands" and by adopting typical everyday habits. The modern, segregated and global city is filled with "islands" that convey imagery and desires for a friendlier urban life. This paper analyses areas with community identities, neo-community identities and border UDC: 316.334.56:39(83)'20' DOI: 10.5379/urbani-izziv-en-2011-22-02- 002 Francisca MÁRQUEZ Santiago: Modernisation, segregation and urban identities in the twenty-first centuryidentities. It suggests that, just as community identities shelter nostalgia for a lost community (by finding refuge or reinventing ways to make the fringes of the city habitable in the background or on the "other side" of the Mapocho River and very near the historical centre of the city), border identities have also arisen and persisted; these subvert the orderly and hegemonic city, resulting in a diverse, heterogeneous and multicultural lifestyle. The result is a synthesis and an urban lifestyle.

Llanes G.,University of Santiago de Chile | De Elejalde R.,Alberto Hurtado University
International Journal of Industrial Organization | Year: 2013

We present a model of industry equilibrium to study the coexistence of open-source and proprietary firms. Two novel aspects of the model are (i) participation in open source arises as the optimal decision of profit-maximizing firms, and (ii) open-source and proprietary firms may (or may not) coexist in equilibrium. Firms decide their type and investment in R&D, and sell packages composed of a primary good and a complementary private good. Open-source firms share their technological advances on the primary good, whereas proprietary firms keep their innovations private. The main contribution of the paper is to determine conditions under which open-source and proprietary firms coexist in equilibrium. Interestingly, this equilibrium is characterized by an asymmetric market structure, with few large proprietary firms and many small open-source firms. We also study the limiting economy and present conditions under which large numbers favor cooperation in R&D. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Pena M.A.,Alberto Hurtado University | Brenning A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2015

Satellite image time series (SITS) provide spectral-temporal features that describe phenological changes in vegetation over the growing season, which is expected to facilitate the classification of crop types. While most SITS-based crop type classifications were focused on NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) temporal profiles, less attention has been paid to using the complete image spectral resolution of the time series. In this work we assessed different approaches to SITS-based classification of four major fruit-tree crops in the Maipo Valley, central Chile, during the 2013-14 growing season. Wecompared four feature sets froma time series comprised of eight cloud-free Landsat-8 images: the full-band SITS, theNDVI andNDWI (normalized differencewater index) temporal profiles, and an image stackwith all the feature sets combined. State-of-the-art classifiers (linear discriminant analysis, LDA; random forest; and support vector machine) were applied on each feature set at different training sample sizes (N=100, 200, 400, 800 and 2291 fields), and classification results were assessed by cross-validation of the misclassification error rate (MER). For all the feature sets overall results were good (MERs = 0.21) although substantially improved classification accuracies were achieved when the full-band SITS was employed (MER 0.14-0.05). Classifications applied on the NDVI temporal profile consistently had the worst performance. For a sample size of 200 fields, LDA using the full-band SITS of image dates 1, 3, 6 and 8 produced the best tradeoff between the number of images and classification accuracy (MER = 0.06), being the green, red, blue and SWIR (short-wave infrared) bands of image date 1 (acquired at the early greenup stage) the most relevant for crop type discrimination. Our results show the importance of considering the complete image spectral resolution for SITS-based crop type classifications as the commonly usedNDVI temporal profile and their red and near infrared bands were not found the most significant to discriminate the crop types of interest. Furthermore, in light of the good results obtained, the methodology used here might be transferred to similar agricultural lands cultivated with the same crop types, thus providing a reliable and relatively efficient methodology for creating and updating crop inventories. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Agostini C.A.,Alberto Hurtado University | Brown P.H.,Colby College
Journal of Regional Science | Year: 2011

The headcount ratio in Chile has declined from 40 percent to 14 percent since 1987. However, most analysis of this reduction uses national and regional poverty statistics. In contrast, we employ poverty mapping methodologies to find heterogeneity in the effectiveness of transfers across counties. To better understand this variation, we explore the roles of characteristics of the local population, structural features of the county, and geography. The greatest reductions in poverty occur in rural households, yet population characteristics and geography are also important. These findings suggest that targeting at low levels of aggregation can deliver further reductions in poverty. © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The concept of assemblages has gained an important degree of momentum in urban studies claiming to offer a new ontology for understanding cities as emergent and fluid concatenations of multiple elements. Such a conception, however, has also been criticised in relation to its supposed failure to deal effectively with the issue of power and inequality in urban dynamics. This paper contributes to this on-going discussion by exploring in detail the way in which power was embedded in one particular case: a bus stop shelter located in front of the Biblioteca Nacional in Santiago, Chile. In so doing, it analyses the controversy arising when two large and complex urban assemblages share component/s that each of them claims as exclusive. This situation made necessary practices of co-ordination in which a hierarchy was established between the competing assemblages, involving important transformations in some of its components. © 2013 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

Pinochet J.,Alberto Hurtado University
Physics Education | Year: 2016

In 1974, the British physicist Stephen Hawking discovered that black holes have a characteristic temperature and are therefore capable of emitting radiation. Given the scientific importance of this discovery, there is a profuse literature on the subject. Nevertheless, the available literature ends up being either too simple, which does not convey the true physical significance of the issue, or too technical, which excludes an ample segment of the audience interested in science, such as physics teachers and their students. The present article seeks to remedy this shortcoming. It develops a simple and plausible argument that provides insight into the fundamental aspects of Hawking's discovery, which leads to an approximate equation for the so-called Hawking temperature. The exposition is mainly intended for physics teachers and their students, and it only requires elementary algebra, as well as basic notions of Newtonian mechanics and quantum theory. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Gomez-Lobo A.,University of Chile | Pena-Torres J.,Alberto Hurtado University | Barria P.,Fisheries Development Institute
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2011

In 2001 an individual (operationally transferable) quota system was introduced for all the most important industrial fisheries in Chile. This system was put in place after years of declining stocks and over investment. In this paper we describe this reform and estimate related allocative efficiency benefits for the most important industrial fishery in the country, the southern pelagic fishery. Benefits were estimated using a bioeconomic model estimated using data for the 1985-2004 period. The estimated model was then used to generate simulated scenarios of the evolution of this fishery in a 20 year horizon with and without the ITQ system in place. The benefits of the reform can then be estimated by comparing the fishery's costs in the scenarios with and without ITQs. This approach allows benefits to be estimated using more realistic counterfactual scenarios than just comparing the fishery before and after the reform. Estimated discounted net benefits reach US $166 million in the period 2001-2020. Fleet size fell from 149 active boats in 2000 to 57 in 2004 as a direct consequence of the reform. Among the interesting features of the Chilean experience is the way the political economy of the reform was facilitated by the prior introduction of de facto individual quotas within the framework of fishery experimental activities. When the authorities closed the southern pelagic fishery because of biological problems between 1997 and 2000, they organized 'experimental' fishing expeditions in which participant boats were given the right to fish a certain amount of resources per expedition. This pseudo quota system allowed fishermen to experience directly the benefits of individual quotas and that was instrumental to the political agreement leading to the reform. It is important to note that the Chilean southern industrial pelagic fishery has average catches of over 1.4 million tons a year, making it one of the largest fisheries in the world to be regulated by individual quotas. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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