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Rabi Y.,University of Calgary | Rabi Y.,Alberta Childrens Hospital Research Institute | Dawson J.A.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Dawson J.A.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Dawson J.A.,University of Melbourne
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2013

Pulse oximetry is increasingly being used in the delivery room. Expert recommendations state that oxygen therapy during newborn resuscitation should be guided by pulse oximetry. Obtaining accurate and stable oxygen saturation and heart rate information from a pulse oximeter in the delivery room can be challenging. Understanding the properties of this device is important in overcoming these challenges. This article describes several aspects of pulse oximetry use in the delivery room ranging from technical issues with the device itself to clinical applications of the technology. © 2013. Source

Tomfohr L.M.,University of Calgary | Tomfohr L.M.,Alberta Childrens Hospital Research Institute | Pung M.A.,University of California at San Diego | Mills P.J.,University of California at San Diego | Edwards K.,University of Sydney
Journal of Behavioral Medicine | Year: 2014

Mindfulness based interventions have been associated with improvements in physical health; however, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unclear. The current study explored relationships between trait mindfulness, blood pressure (BP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Relationships between physical health variables and (1) a composite score of mindfulness, (2) individual facets of mindfulness and (3) interactions between theoretically relevant pairs of mindfulness subscales were investigated. One hundred and thirty healthy, young adults [M (SD) age = 21.7(2.7) years] reported trait levels of mindfulness (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, subscales include: observing, describing, acting with awareness (AWA), nonjudging and nonreactivity), had their resting BP measured and underwent a blood draw to assesses circulating IL-6 levels. Age, gender, body mass index, race/ethnicity, depression and perceived stress were obtained and used as covariates. A composite score of trait mindfulness was associated with lower BP and a trend suggested that it was also associated with lower IL-6. Investigation of individual facets of mindfulness revealed interactions between the subscales AWA and nonjudging, such that higher endorsement of AWA was associated with lower BP only when nonjudging was also high. A second interaction was observed between the subscales observing and nonreactivity, such that higher endorsement of observing was associated with lower IL-6 only when levels of nonreactivity were also high. Trait mindfulness was associated with both BP and IL-6. Examining interactions between facets of mindfulness variables may be important in understanding how mindfulness based interventions influence physiology. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Stang A.S.,Alberta Childrens Hospital Research Institute | Straus S.E.,University of Toronto | Crotts J.,Alberta Childrens Hospital Research Institute | Johnson D.W.,Alberta Childrens Hospital Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Objective: Identifying gaps in care and improving outcomes for severely ill children requires the development of evidence-based performance measures. We used a systematic process involving multiple stakeholders to identify and develop evidence-based quality indicators for high acuity pediatric conditions relevant to any emergency department (ED) setting where children are seen. Methods: A prioritized list of clinical conditions was selected by an advisory panel. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing indicators, as well as guidelines and evidence that could be used to inform the creation of new indicators. A multiphase, Rand-modified Delphi method consisting of anonymous questionnaires and a face-to-face meeting of an expert panel was used for indicator selection. Measure specifications and evidence grading were created for each indicator, and the feasibility and reliability of measurement was assessed in a tertiary care pediatric ED. Results: The conditions selected for indicator development were diabetic ketoacidosis, status asthmaticus, anaphylaxis, status epilepticus, severe head injury, and sepsis. The majority of the 62 selected indicators reflect ED processes (84%) with few indicators reflecting structures (11%) or outcomes (5%). Thirty-seven percent (n = 23) of the selected indicators are based on moderate or high quality evidence. Data were available and interrater reliability acceptable for the majority of indicators. Conclusions: A systematic process involving multiple stakeholders was used to develop evidence-based quality indicators for high acuity pediatric conditions. Future work will test the reliability and feasibility of data collection on these indicators across the spectrum of ED settings that provide care for children. © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Freedman S.B.,Alberta Childrens Hospital Research Institute | Thull-Freedman J.,University of Calgary | Rumantir M.,University of Sfax | Eltorki M.,University of Calgary | Schuh S.,University of Sfax
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVES: Limited knowledge exists surrounding the pharmacologic management of pediatric constipation in the emergency department (ED) setting and the success of interventions. Our primary objective was to determine whether enema administration is associated with 7-day ED revisits for persistent symptoms. Secondary objectives focused on assessing other predictors of ED revisits. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children <18 years old, diagnosed as having constipation (International Classification of Diseases-10 codes F98.1 nonorganic encopresis, K59.0 constipation) in a pediatric ED in Toronto, Canada, between November 2008 and October 2010. RESULTS: A total of 3592 visits were included; 6% (n = 225) were associated with a revisit. Children with revisits more frequently had vomiting (28% vs 17%, P = 0.001), more pain (5.7 ± 3.6 vs 4.6-3.6 of 10, P = 0.01), and underwent more blood tests (19% 05, 11%, 95% confidence interval [CI] of the difference 3%-14%] and diagnostic imaging (62% vs 47%, 95% CI of the difference 9%-22%). Children administered an enema were 1.54 times more likely to revisit the ED than those who did not receive an enema (8.6% vs 5.5%, 95% CI of the difference 1.1%-5.2%, P = 0.001). Type of enema administered varied by age (P < 0.001). Regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of revisits: diagnostic imaging (odds ratio [OR] 1.54, 95% CI 1.15-2.06), vomiting (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.98), enema administration (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.05-1.88), and significant medical history (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.53). CONCLUSIONS: Enema administration and diagnostic imaging are associated with revisits in children diagnosed with constipation. Their role in the ED management of pediatric constipation requires further evaluation. © 2014 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Source

Premji S.,University of Calgary | Premji S.,Alberta Childrens Hospital Research Institute
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2014

In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), determinants of women’s and children’s health are complex and differential vulnerability may exist to risk factors of perinatal distress and preterm birth. We examined the contribution of maternal perinatal distress on preterm birth and infant health in terms of infant survival and mother–infant interaction. A critical narrative and interpretive literature review was conducted. Peer-reviewed electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINHAL), grey literature, and reference lists were searched, followed by a consultation exercise. The literature was predominantly from high-income countries. We identify determinants of perinatal distress and explicate changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, sympathetic, immune and cardiovascular systems, and behavioral responses resulting in pathophysiological effects. We suggest cultural–neutral composite measures of allostatic mediators (i.e., several biomarkers) of maternal perinatal distress as objective indicators of dysregulation in body systems in pregnant women in LMIC. Understanding causal links of maternal perinatal distress to preterm birth in women in LMIC should be a priority. The roles of allostasis and allostatic load are considered within the context of the health of pregnant women and fetuses/newborns in LMIC with emphasis on identifying objective indicators of the level of perinatal distress and protective factors or processes contributing to resilience while facing toxic stress. We propose a prospective study design with multiple measures across pregnancy and postpartum requiring complex statistical modeling. Building research capacity through partnering researchers in high-income countries and LMIC and reflecting on unique ethical challenges will be important to generating new knowledge in LMIC. © 2014, The Author(s). Source

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