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Regev-Shoshani G.,University of British Columbia | Church J.S.,Thompson Rivers University | Cook N.J.,Alberta Agriculture Food and Rural Development | Schaefer A.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Miller C.,University of British Columbia
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2013

Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc), is a challenging multi-factorial health issue caused by viral/bacterial pathogens and stressors linked with the transport and mixing of cattle, negatively impacting the cattle feedlot industry. Nitric oxide (NO) is a naturally occurring molecule with antimicrobial attributes. This study tests whether NO can prevent the symptoms associated with BRDc. Eighty-five, crossbred, multiple-sourced, commingled commercial weaned beef calves were monitored and scored for temperature, white blood count, clinical score, hematology, cortisol levels and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. NO treatment or placebo were given once on arrival to the stockyard. After one week 87.5% of sick animals were from the control while 12.5% from treatment groups and after two weeks 72% and 28% respectively. Treatment was shown to be safe, causing neither distress nor adverse effects on the animals. These data show that NO treatment on arrival to the feedlot significantly decreased the incidence of BRDc in this study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Schwartzkopf-Genswein K.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Shah M.A.,Alberta Agriculture Food and Rural Development | Church J.S.,Thompson Rivers University | Haley D.B.,University of Guelph | And 4 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

The temperament of steers (n=28) was assessed using five quantitative techniques including: flight time, flight distance, electronic (strain-gauge and accelerometer) tests, and three visual scores (VS) made during entry, restraint and exit from a squeeze chute. The objective of this study was to determine the most important predictive parameters based on those measurements and evaluate the relationship between the techniques. Flight time and distance were correlated with exit VS (r=-0.51, and 0.41, PB0.05; n=56), but were not related to restraint VS. Data from straingauge and accelerometer sensors were used to generate parameters such as peak response and area under the curve that were correlated with all three VS. Regression models using VS as the dependent variable and a combination of 2 to 5 parameters from the strain-gauge and accelerometer tests as independent variables predicted temperament with values of 29 to 65 or 41 to 57%, respectively. When all techniques, excluding VS, were used as independent variables, model accuracy increased to 72, 81 and 77% for restraint, exit and the sum of all VS, respectively. These findings suggest the objective measures of temperament assessed in this study could be used to identify highly reactive animals. Source

Borsuk Y.,University of Manitoba | Arntfield S.,University of Manitoba | Lukow O.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Swallow K.,Alberta Agriculture Food and Rural Development | Malcolmson L.,Canadian International Grains Institute
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

Background: To increase pulse consumption, pita bread was fortified with pulse flours milled from green lentils, navy beans and pinto beans, which were ground to produce fine and coarse flours. Pita breads were prepared using composite flours containing pulse flours (25, 50, 75%) and wheat flour or 100% pulse flours and adjusting the amount of water required for mixing based on farinograph water absorption. Pita bread quality was evaluated according to diameter, pocket height, specific loaf volume, texture and crust colour. Results: Blends made from pulse flours with coarse particle size showed higher rates of water absorption. All composite flours and 100% pulse flours produced pitas with pockets, confirming their suitability for this product. Crust colour of pitas was affected less by navy bean flour than by lentil flour. Pita breads made with pinto bean flour were superior in texture. Overall, navy and pinto bean flours appeared more suitable for pita bread. Flours with coarse particle sizes produced pitas with better colour and texture. Sensory parameters of pitas containing 25% coarse pinto or navy bean flour were as good as or better than those from the wheat control. Conclusion: Acceptable pita breads can be made using pulse flours, although the substitution level is limited to 25%. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Nichols M.A.,Massey University | Savidov N.A.,Alberta Agriculture Food and Rural Development
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Aquaponics is the land-based production of fish in tanks combined with the recirculation of the water from the fish tanks through hydroponic systems to produce high value horticultural crops. The waste products from the fish are converted by a bio-filter into soluble nutrients, which are absorbed by the plants, and allow "clean" water to be returned back to the fish. Thus, it produces valuable fish protein with a minimal pollution of fresh water resources, while at the same time producing horticultural (usually vegetable) crops. The production of fertilizers is becoming increasingly expensive due to high prices on fossil fuels, and this may have long term implications for nutrient use in agriculture in the future. Aquaponics uses waste products derived from animals and plants which are fed to the fish, and thus converted into valuable animal protein and fresh vegetables. With the world's fresh water resources limited, aquaponics would appear to have considerable potential for arid and similar climates. Disease and pest problems are minimized because of the development of an ecological balance. Productivity is commonly as good (or better) than with conventional hydroponic systems. Source

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