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Omana D.A.,University of Alberta | Pietrasik Z.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development | Betti M.,University of Alberta
Poultry Science

Evaluation of poultry protein isolate (PPI) as a food ingredient was carried out by substituting nonmeat ingredients such as soy protein isolate (SPI) or meat protein in turkey bologna. Two concentrations (1.5 and 2% dry weight basis) of PPI prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat were used in this study. Two control samples were prepared with 11 and 13% meat protein, respectively. Physicochemical characteristics of turkey bologna containing PPI were compared with those of control and SPI-containing samples. Batter strength was higher for 2% PPI and 13% meat protein control samples (control-2) compared with all other treatments. Cooking yield of the 11% meat protein control was significantly (P < 0.05) less compared with other treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the expressible moisture or purge loss among all the treatments. Control-2 showed lower L* values and was more reddish during refrigerated storage. Addition of protein isolates caused a significant increase (b* value varied between 11.48 and 12.52) in yellowness of products. Turkey bologna with added protein isolates showed significantly lower lipid oxidation as indicated by induced TBA reactive substance analysis. Results from this study suggest that SPI or meat protein could be replaced by PPI without negatively affecting product characteristics as evident from cooking yield and purge loss values. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Zhou X.,University of Alberta | Oryschak M.A.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development | Zijlstra R.T.,University of Alberta | Beltranena E.,University of Alberta
Animal Feed Science and Technology

The dietary energy value of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) is limited by its relative high fibre content. The fibre-rich hull of canola is denser than the oil-free cotyledons, so these seed components partially fractionate in a stream of air. Air classification thus separates CM into a low-fibre, light-particle fraction and a high-fibre, heavy-particle fraction of interest for feeding monogastric and ruminant species, respectively. Crude fibre (CF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in light-particle fraction were reduced by 96, 34 and 28% compared with CM (83 CF, 165 ADF, 238 NDF g/kg, as-is). Brassica (. B) napus, Brassica juncea, or their fractions were evaluated feeding 288 weaned pigs (7.1. kg) for 37 d as a 2. ×. 3 factorial with 12 replicate pens per treatment. Wheat-based diets including 200. g of test feedstuff/kg provided 10.5 and 10.0. MJ net energy (NE)/kg and 1.27 and 1.15. g standardised ileal digestible lysine/MJ NE and were fed for 9 and 28 d, respectively. Pen feed added, orts, and individual pig body weight were measured weekly to calculate average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed efficiency (G:F). Pen faecal samples were collected on d 16 and 17 to calculate diet apparent total tract digestibility coefficients (CATTD) of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), crude protein (CP) and digestible energy (DE) value. Pigs fed B. juncea had 3 and 2% higher (P<0.001) CATTD of DM (0.82 vs. 0.79) and GE (0.84 vs. 0.82) than pigs fed B. napus. Feeding the light-particle fraction increased (P<0.001) CATTD of DM (0.82 vs. 0.79), GE (0.84 vs. 0.82), and CP (0.79 vs. 0.77) by 4, 3 and 3% compared with CM, respectively. For the entire trial, pigs fed B. juncea consumed 33. g/d less (P<0.001) feed (723 vs. 756. g/d), had 0.02 higher (P<0.05) G:F (0.735 vs. 0.718. g:g), but ADG (503 vs. 514. g/d) was not different (P>0.05) compared to pigs fed B. napus. Feeding pigs the light-particle fractions did not affect (P>0.05) ADFI (741 vs. 736. g/d), increased (P<0.05) G:F 0.02 (0.739 vs. 0.721. g:g) and tended to increase (P=0.07) ADG (519 vs. 501. g/d) by 18. g/d compared to CM. In conclusion, air classification of canola meal increased diet nutrient digestibility, but only modestly increased G:F of weaned pigs due to dietary fibre reduction. © 2013. Source

Keenliside J.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development
Current topics in microbiology and immunology

Influenza A virus infection has been reported in a variety of mammalian and avian species. Wild waterfowl such as ducks and geese are considered the principal reservoir of many influenza A viruses. On May 2, 2009, the first confirmed case of pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1) in animals was reported in a small swine herd in Canada. A public health investigation concluded that transmission from people to pigs was the likely source of infection. Subsequently the pH1N1 virus has been reported in turkeys, cats, dogs, ferrets, and several wildlife species. Human to animal transmission has been confirmed or suspected in a number of cases. The naming of the virus as "swine flu" in the international media led to a drop in the demand for pork and subsequently a reduction in the price of pork paid to farmers. Estimates of losses to pork producers in North America run into hundreds of millions of dollars. Increased surveillance of swine populations for influenza viruses has been suggested as a control measure against the development of future pandemic viruses. In order to be successful, future surveillance and reporting policies must include provisions to protect the livelihoods of farmers. Source

Malhi S.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Nyborg M.,University of Alberta | Goddard T.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development | Puurveen D.,University of Alberta
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

Soil, crop and fertilizer management practices may affect the amount and quality of organic C and N in soil. A long-term field experiment (growing barley, wheat, or canola) was conducted on a Black Chernozem (Albic Argicryoll) loam at Ellerslie, Alberta, Canada, to determine the influence of 19 (1980 to 1998) or 27 years (1980 to 2006) of tillage (zero tillage [ZT] and conventional tillage [CT]), straw management (straw removed [S Rem]and straw retained [S Ret]) and N fertilizer rate (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha -1 in S Ret and 0 kg N ha -1 in S Rem plots) on total organic C (TOC) and N (TON), and light fraction organic C (LFOC) and N (LFON) in the 0-7.5 and 7.5-15 cm or 0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm soil layers. The mass of TOC and TON in soil was usually higher in S Ret than in S Rem treatment (by 3.44 Mg C ha -1 for TOC and 0.248 Mg N ha -1 for TON after 27 years), but there was little effect of tillage and N fertilization on these parameters. The mass of LFOC and LFON in soil tended to increase with S Ret (by 285 kg C ha -1 for LFOC and 12.6 kg N ha -1 for LFON with annual rate of 100 kg N ha -1 for 27 years) , increased with N fertilizer application (by 517 kg C ha -1 for LFOC and 36.0 kg N ha -1 for LFON after 27 years), but was usually higher under CT than ZT (by 451 kg C ha -1 for LFOC and 25.3 kg N ha -1 for LFON after 27 years). Correlations between soil organic C or N fractions were highly significant in most cases. Linear regressions between crop residue C input and soil organic C or N were significant in most cases. The effects of tillage, straw management and N fertilizer on soil were more pronounced for LFOC and LFON than TOC and TON, and also in the surface layers than in the deeper layers. Tillage and straw management had little or no effect on C:N ratios, but the C:N ratios in light organic fractions significantly decreased with increasing N rate (from 20. 06 at zero-N to 18. 91 at 100 kg N ha -1). Compared to the 1979 results, in treatments that did not receive N fertilizer (CTS Rem0, CTS Ret0, ZTS Rem0 and ZTS Ret0), CTS Rem0 resulted in a net decrease in TOC concentration (by 1.9 g C kg -1) in the 0-15 cm soil layer in 2007 (after 27 years), with little or no change in the CTS Ret0 and ZTS Rem0 treatments, while there was a net increase in TOC concentration (by 1.2 g C kg -1) in the ZTS Ret0 treatment. Straw retention and N fertilizer application at 50 and 100 kg N ha -1 rates showed a net positive effect on TOC concentration under both ZT (ZTS Ret50 by 2.3 g C kg -1 and ZTS Ret100 by 3.1 g C kg -1) and CT (CTS Ret50 by 3.5 g C kg -1 and CTS Ret100 by 1.6 g C kg -1) treatments in 2007 compared to 1979 data. In conclusion, the findings suggest that retention of straw, application of N fertilizer and elimination of tillage would improve soil quality, and this might increase the potential for N supplying power of the soil and sustainability of crop productivity. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Bennett D.R.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development | Harms T.E.,Crop Diversification Center South
Canadian Water Resources Journal

Water supplies available for irrigation in southern Alberta are limited. A study was conducted in southern Alberta to develop crop yield and evapotranspiration (ET c) relationships for major irrigated crops based on current maximum potential crop yield data and improved methods for determination of crop evapotranspiration. Production functions for crop yield and the field water supply, which includes irrigation at 80% efficiency, effective precipitation, and stored soil moisture depletion, were subsequently determined. These empirical relationships may be used by water managers, economists, and producers to examine the economic implications of crop yield reductions from water stress due to limited water supplies, less than optimum (deficit) irrigation management, or variation in evaporative demand from year to year in different agro-climatic areas of southern Alberta. Potential yield estimates for different scenarios may be used with relevant economic information to determine optimum water use for irrigation. © 2011 Canadian Water Resources Association. Source

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