Efetha A.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development |
Harms T.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development |
Bandara M.,Research Division
Irrigation Science | Year: 2011
A 2-year study was carried out from 2006 to 2007 to determine the most suitable irrigation management for maximum dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in southern Alberta, Canada. Six irrigation management treatments were evaluated in this study, including scheduling irrigation based on soil water depletion within a 0.30-m root zone, a 0.60-m root zone, and a split 0.30/0.60-m root zone (a 0.30-m root zone during vegetative growth stages and a 0.60-m root zone at flowering), and 12, 25, and 50-mm applications of irrigation water based on soil water depletion in a 0.60-m root zone. Plant available soil water was maintained above 60% in all irrigation management treatments. A significant increase in average seed yield (15% in 2006 and 46% in 2007) and in WUE (30% in 2006 and 50% in 2007) was found in more frequently irrigated treatments (0.30-m root zone, split 0.30/0.60-m root zone, and 12-mm application) compared to less frequently irrigated treatments (0.60-m root zone and 50-mm application). Dry bean seed yield and WUE may be maximized by keeping the majority of roots moist. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Malhi S.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Nyborg M.,University of Alberta |
Goddard T.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development |
Puurveen D.,University of Alberta
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2011
Soil, crop and fertilizer management practices may affect the amount and quality of organic C and N in soil. A long-term field experiment (growing barley, wheat, or canola) was conducted on a Black Chernozem (Albic Argicryoll) loam at Ellerslie, Alberta, Canada, to determine the influence of 19 (1980 to 1998) or 27 years (1980 to 2006) of tillage (zero tillage [ZT] and conventional tillage [CT]), straw management (straw removed [S Rem]and straw retained [S Ret]) and N fertilizer rate (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha -1 in S Ret and 0 kg N ha -1 in S Rem plots) on total organic C (TOC) and N (TON), and light fraction organic C (LFOC) and N (LFON) in the 0-7.5 and 7.5-15 cm or 0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm soil layers. The mass of TOC and TON in soil was usually higher in S Ret than in S Rem treatment (by 3.44 Mg C ha -1 for TOC and 0.248 Mg N ha -1 for TON after 27 years), but there was little effect of tillage and N fertilization on these parameters. The mass of LFOC and LFON in soil tended to increase with S Ret (by 285 kg C ha -1 for LFOC and 12.6 kg N ha -1 for LFON with annual rate of 100 kg N ha -1 for 27 years) , increased with N fertilizer application (by 517 kg C ha -1 for LFOC and 36.0 kg N ha -1 for LFON after 27 years), but was usually higher under CT than ZT (by 451 kg C ha -1 for LFOC and 25.3 kg N ha -1 for LFON after 27 years). Correlations between soil organic C or N fractions were highly significant in most cases. Linear regressions between crop residue C input and soil organic C or N were significant in most cases. The effects of tillage, straw management and N fertilizer on soil were more pronounced for LFOC and LFON than TOC and TON, and also in the surface layers than in the deeper layers. Tillage and straw management had little or no effect on C:N ratios, but the C:N ratios in light organic fractions significantly decreased with increasing N rate (from 20. 06 at zero-N to 18. 91 at 100 kg N ha -1). Compared to the 1979 results, in treatments that did not receive N fertilizer (CTS Rem0, CTS Ret0, ZTS Rem0 and ZTS Ret0), CTS Rem0 resulted in a net decrease in TOC concentration (by 1.9 g C kg -1) in the 0-15 cm soil layer in 2007 (after 27 years), with little or no change in the CTS Ret0 and ZTS Rem0 treatments, while there was a net increase in TOC concentration (by 1.2 g C kg -1) in the ZTS Ret0 treatment. Straw retention and N fertilizer application at 50 and 100 kg N ha -1 rates showed a net positive effect on TOC concentration under both ZT (ZTS Ret50 by 2.3 g C kg -1 and ZTS Ret100 by 3.1 g C kg -1) and CT (CTS Ret50 by 3.5 g C kg -1 and CTS Ret100 by 1.6 g C kg -1) treatments in 2007 compared to 1979 data. In conclusion, the findings suggest that retention of straw, application of N fertilizer and elimination of tillage would improve soil quality, and this might increase the potential for N supplying power of the soil and sustainability of crop productivity. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Zhou X.,University of Alberta |
Oryschak M.A.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development |
Zijlstra R.T.,University of Alberta |
Beltranena E.,University of Alberta
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2013
The dietary energy value of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) is limited by its relative high fibre content. The fibre-rich hull of canola is denser than the oil-free cotyledons, so these seed components partially fractionate in a stream of air. Air classification thus separates CM into a low-fibre, light-particle fraction and a high-fibre, heavy-particle fraction of interest for feeding monogastric and ruminant species, respectively. Crude fibre (CF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in light-particle fraction were reduced by 96, 34 and 28% compared with CM (83 CF, 165 ADF, 238 NDF g/kg, as-is). Brassica (. B) napus, Brassica juncea, or their fractions were evaluated feeding 288 weaned pigs (7.1. kg) for 37 d as a 2. ×. 3 factorial with 12 replicate pens per treatment. Wheat-based diets including 200. g of test feedstuff/kg provided 10.5 and 10.0. MJ net energy (NE)/kg and 1.27 and 1.15. g standardised ileal digestible lysine/MJ NE and were fed for 9 and 28 d, respectively. Pen feed added, orts, and individual pig body weight were measured weekly to calculate average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed efficiency (G:F). Pen faecal samples were collected on d 16 and 17 to calculate diet apparent total tract digestibility coefficients (CATTD) of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), crude protein (CP) and digestible energy (DE) value. Pigs fed B. juncea had 3 and 2% higher (P<0.001) CATTD of DM (0.82 vs. 0.79) and GE (0.84 vs. 0.82) than pigs fed B. napus. Feeding the light-particle fraction increased (P<0.001) CATTD of DM (0.82 vs. 0.79), GE (0.84 vs. 0.82), and CP (0.79 vs. 0.77) by 4, 3 and 3% compared with CM, respectively. For the entire trial, pigs fed B. juncea consumed 33. g/d less (P<0.001) feed (723 vs. 756. g/d), had 0.02 higher (P<0.05) G:F (0.735 vs. 0.718. g:g), but ADG (503 vs. 514. g/d) was not different (P>0.05) compared to pigs fed B. napus. Feeding pigs the light-particle fractions did not affect (P>0.05) ADFI (741 vs. 736. g/d), increased (P<0.05) G:F 0.02 (0.739 vs. 0.721. g:g) and tended to increase (P=0.07) ADG (519 vs. 501. g/d) by 18. g/d compared to CM. In conclusion, air classification of canola meal increased diet nutrient digestibility, but only modestly increased G:F of weaned pigs due to dietary fibre reduction. © 2013.
Patterson J.L.,University of Alberta |
Beltranena E.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development |
Foxcroft G.R.,University of Alberta
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010
The objective of this trial was to determine the effect of age at first estrus on BW changes and long-term reproductive performance of sows. At approximately 100 d of age, prepubertal C22 gilts (n = 431) were allocated to trial. At a pen average of 140 d of age, gilts began daily direct contact with mature boars to stimulate onset of puberty. Gilts (n = 317, 73%) were recorded as cyclic by 180 d of age (select) and were classified on the basis of age at puberty into 3 puberty groups: 1) early puberty (EP; <153 d of age; n = 85); 2) intermediate puberty (IP; 154 to 167 d of age; n = 140); or 3) late puberty (LP; 168 to 180 d of age; n = 90). Gilts not exhibiting the standing reflex by 180 d of age were considered nonselect (NS; n = 91). Mean day to puberty and age at puberty attainment in each of the classifications were EP: 9.6 ± 0.5 d and 147.4 ± 0.5 d; IP: 19.3 ± 0.5 d and 159.9 ± 0.3 d; LP: 33.8 ± 0.7 and 175.7 ± 0.6 d, respectively. Fewer NS gilts (73.0%) were bred than were EP (97.7%), IP (93.2%), or LP (93.0%) gilts (P < 0.05). Total number of piglets born and born alive were not different between classifications and increased (P < 0.05) over successive parities in EP, IP, and NS gilts. For gilts initially served, there was no effect of puberty group classification on retention in the herd to farrow a third litter, but the rate of fallout per parity tended to be greatest for NS (17.2%) compared with EP (12.4%), IP (15.6%), and LP (14.2%) gilts (P < 0.08). Taken together, these data suggest that the response to a standardized protocol of boar stimulation can identify 50 to 75% of gilts that will have greatest lifetime productivity in the breeding herd. In the known cyclic (select) gilts, BW increased over the productive life of the sow, and EP gilts were lighter than LP gilts at every measured event (P < 0.05). Plasma IGF-1 only differed between puberty groups at d 100 of age (EP: 169.0 ± 4.4; IP: 157.2 ± 3.5; LP: 144.0 ± 4.4 ng/mL), suggesting a mechanism linking IGF-1 status and age at puberty in the present study. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.
Keenliside J.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development
Current topics in microbiology and immunology | Year: 2013
Influenza A virus infection has been reported in a variety of mammalian and avian species. Wild waterfowl such as ducks and geese are considered the principal reservoir of many influenza A viruses. On May 2, 2009, the first confirmed case of pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1) in animals was reported in a small swine herd in Canada. A public health investigation concluded that transmission from people to pigs was the likely source of infection. Subsequently the pH1N1 virus has been reported in turkeys, cats, dogs, ferrets, and several wildlife species. Human to animal transmission has been confirmed or suspected in a number of cases. The naming of the virus as "swine flu" in the international media led to a drop in the demand for pork and subsequently a reduction in the price of pork paid to farmers. Estimates of losses to pork producers in North America run into hundreds of millions of dollars. Increased surveillance of swine populations for influenza viruses has been suggested as a control measure against the development of future pandemic viruses. In order to be successful, future surveillance and reporting policies must include provisions to protect the livelihoods of farmers.
Omana D.A.,University of Alberta |
Pietrasik Z.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development |
Betti M.,University of Alberta
Poultry Science | Year: 2012
Evaluation of poultry protein isolate (PPI) as a food ingredient was carried out by substituting nonmeat ingredients such as soy protein isolate (SPI) or meat protein in turkey bologna. Two concentrations (1.5 and 2% dry weight basis) of PPI prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat were used in this study. Two control samples were prepared with 11 and 13% meat protein, respectively. Physicochemical characteristics of turkey bologna containing PPI were compared with those of control and SPI-containing samples. Batter strength was higher for 2% PPI and 13% meat protein control samples (control-2) compared with all other treatments. Cooking yield of the 11% meat protein control was significantly (P < 0.05) less compared with other treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the expressible moisture or purge loss among all the treatments. Control-2 showed lower L* values and was more reddish during refrigerated storage. Addition of protein isolates caused a significant increase (b* value varied between 11.48 and 12.52) in yellowness of products. Turkey bologna with added protein isolates showed significantly lower lipid oxidation as indicated by induced TBA reactive substance analysis. Results from this study suggest that SPI or meat protein could be replaced by PPI without negatively affecting product characteristics as evident from cooking yield and purge loss values. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Bennett D.R.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development |
Harms T.E.,Crop Diversification Center South
Canadian Water Resources Journal | Year: 2011
Water supplies available for irrigation in southern Alberta are limited. A study was conducted in southern Alberta to develop crop yield and evapotranspiration (ET c) relationships for major irrigated crops based on current maximum potential crop yield data and improved methods for determination of crop evapotranspiration. Production functions for crop yield and the field water supply, which includes irrigation at 80% efficiency, effective precipitation, and stored soil moisture depletion, were subsequently determined. These empirical relationships may be used by water managers, economists, and producers to examine the economic implications of crop yield reductions from water stress due to limited water supplies, less than optimum (deficit) irrigation management, or variation in evaporative demand from year to year in different agro-climatic areas of southern Alberta. Potential yield estimates for different scenarios may be used with relevant economic information to determine optimum water use for irrigation. © 2011 Canadian Water Resources Association.
Keenliside J.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2013
Influenza A virus infection has been reported in a variety of mammalian and avian species. Wild waterfowl such as ducks and geese are considered the principal reservoir of many influenza A viruses. On May 2, 2009, the first confirmed case of pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1) in animals was reported in a small swine herd in Canada. A public health investigation concluded that transmission from people to pigs was the likely source of infection. Subsequently the pH1N1 virus has been reported in turkeys, cats, dogs, ferrets, and several wildlife species.Human to animal transmission has been confirmed or suspected in a number of cases. The naming of the virus as ''swine flu'' in the international media led to a drop in the demand for pork and subsequently a reduction in the price of pork paid to farmers. Estimates of losses to pork producers in North America run into hundreds of millions of dollars. Increased surveillance of swine populations for influenza viruses has been suggested as a control measure against the development of future pandemic viruses. In order to be successful, future surveillance and reporting policies must include provisions to protect the livelihoods of farmers. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 Published Online: 21 December 2012.
Yang R.-C.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development |
Yang R.-C.,University of Alberta
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2014
The usual analysis of genotype × environment interaction (G × E) is based on the linear regression of genotypic performance on environmental changes (e.g., classic stability analysis). This linear model may often lead to lumping together of the non-linear responses to the whole range of environmental changes from suboptimal and super optimal conditions, thereby lowering the power of detecting G × E variation. On the other hand, the G × E is present when the magnitude of the genetic effect differs across the range of environmental conditions regardless of whether the response to environmental changes is linear or non-linear. The objectives of this study are: (i) explore the use of four commonly used non-linear functions (logistic, parabola, normal and Cauchy functions) for modeling non-linear genotypic responses to environmental changes and (ii) to investigate the difference in the magnitude of estimated genetic effects under different environmental conditions. The use of non-linear functions was illustrated through the analysis of one data set taken from barley cultivar trials in Alberta, Canada (Data A) and the examination of change in effect sizes is through the analysis another data set taken from the North America Barley Genome Mapping Project (Data B). The analysis of Data A showed that the Cauchy function captured an average of >40% of total G × E variation whereas the logistic function captured less G × E variation than the linear function. The analysis of Data B showed that genotypic responses were largely linear and that strong QTL × environment interaction existed as the positions, sizes and directions of QTL detected differed in poor vs. good environments. We conclude that (i) the non-linear functions should be considered when analyzing multi-environmental trials with a wide range of environmental variation and (ii) QTL × environment interaction can arise from the difference in effect sizes across environments. © 2014 Yang.
Meng X.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development |
Threinen D.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development |
Hansen M.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development |
Driedger D.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development
Food Research International | Year: 2010
Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effects of feed moisture content (16-18%), screw speed (250-320 rpm), and barrel temperature (150-170 °C) on extruder system parameters (product temperature, die pressure, motor torque, specific mechanical energy, SME) and physical properties (expansion, bulk density, hardness) of a chickpea flour-based snack. Second-order polynomials were used to model the extruder responses and product properties as a function of process variables. Product temperature and die pressure were affected by all three process variables, while motor torque and SME were only influenced by screw speed and barrel temperature. All three variables affected product responses significantly. Desirable products, characterized by high expansion ratio and low bulk density and hardness, were obtained at low feed moisture, high screw speed and medium to high barrel temperature. It was demonstrated that chickpeas can be used to produce nutritious snacks with desirable expansion and texture properties. Crown Copyright © 2009.