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PubMed | Alberta Agriculture and Alpha Wildlife Research & Management Ltd.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animals : an open access journal from MDPI | Year: 2015

Although predation bounty programs (rewards offered for capturing or killing an animal) ended more than 40 years ago in Canada, they were reintroduced in Alberta in 2007 by hunting, trapping, and farming organizations, municipalities and counties, and in 2009 in Saskatchewan, by municipal and provincial governments and the Saskatchewan Cattlemens Association. Bounty hunters use inhumane and non-selective killing methods such as shooting animals in non-vital regions, and killing neck snares and strychnine poisoning, which cause suffering and delayed deaths. They are unselective, and kill many non-target species, some of them at risk. Predator bounty programs have been found to be ineffective by wildlife professionals, and they use killing methods that cause needless suffering and jeopardize wildlife conservation programs. Our analysis therefore indicates that government agencies should not permit the implementation of bounty programs. Accordingly, they must develop conservation programs that will minimize wildlife-human conflicts, prevent the unnecessary and inhumane killing of animals, and ensure the persistence of all wildlife species.

News Article | February 23, 2017

VANCOUVER, British Columbia, Feb. 23, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Naturally Splendid Enterprises Ltd. ("Naturally Splendid") (FRANKFURT:50N) (TSX VENTURE:NSP) (OTC:NSPDF) is pleased to announce it has signed a non-binding Term Sheet with Canature Processing Ltd., (“Canature”) an industry leader in the freeze dried Pet Foods and Treats market. Accordingly, Naturally Splendid and Canature have entered into an arrangement covering the next six months, during which time Canature will begin work to formulate Naturally Splendid’s proprietary HempOmega™ into Canature’s existing product lines and begin R&D on future pet food and treat products.  It is anticipated that Canature will incorporate HempOmega™ into Canature’s house brands and potentially, into private label client products. Subsequent to the initial agreement and upon mutual consensus, Naturally Splendid will grant to Canature exclusive rights for the application of HempOmega™ into freeze-dried pet food and treats for an initial term of two (2) years in defined categories and territories. Located in Langley, British Columbia, Canada, Canature Processing Ltd. combines state of the art technology with a highly innovative R&D team, to produce premium world class freeze dried pet food and treats for the global markets. Canature’s brands include, “Ubite” treats targeted for the pet speciality market as well as the “NutriBites” brand destined towards the mass and grocery channels. In addition to it’s house brands, Canature produces many private label brands at it’s facilities that are CFIA certified, GMP/HACCP and SQF accredited. Canature's future expansion plans include additional production facilities in Ontario, Canada, as well as in California and the Eastern Unites States. These additional production facilities will allow Canature to continue with product innovation and diversification in an effort to keep up with the growing freeze dried pet foods and treats market demand. Canature is an industry leader in freeze-dried pet foods & treats with production, meat processing and freeze drying facilities occupying over 125,000 square feet. Central to Canature’s innovation and success is a standalone R & D facility where new innovative products are developed and where the research, development and application of HempOmega™ into freeze dried products will take place. Canature also conducts joint product development thus fulfilling the diverse requirements of its customers and partners, leading to the creation of diverse revenue streams from multiple clients. Naturally Splendid CEO Mr. Dave Eto states, “Our term sheet with Canature is one example of the opportunities we are developing to promote the use of HempOmega™ as an ingredient.  We are extremely happy with the business relationship that’s been created with Canature and recognize the reputation and market position that Canature has established in the Pet Food sector.  Naturally Splendid will continue to explore and to seek other opportunities for extrusion technology pet food companies who may be seeking similar ingredient solutions particularly in the dry kibble sector.” Canature CEO Mr. John Milne comments, “As innovators in Freeze Dried Pet Foods and Pet Treats, we are constantly reviewing new ingredients and opportunities, especially ingredients that have proven attributes and contributions to pet well being and health. We have been in discussions with Naturally Splendid for a while now and therefore based on initial confirmations as to product quality and efficacy, we are very pleased to enter into this initial agreement with Naturally Splendid. Our initial conclusions regarding HempOmega™ have now been independently confirmed with the recent HempOmega™ report that Naturally Splendid received from Dr. Xiangfeng Meng and her team at the Food Science and Technology Centre, a branch of the Food and Bio-Processing branch at the Alberta Agriculture. As reported in Naturally Splendid’s recently announced HempOmega™ Dog Food Study, Naturally Splendid’s proprietary encapsulation process has now been proven to protect the omegas, minerals and vitamins naturally expressed in hempseed oil through Naturally Splendid’s proprietary manufacturing process.  By protecting the nutritional profile of the hemp oil, Naturally Splendid is developing a competitive advantage over the current methodology and techniques for adding omega nutrition to canine and feline food formulations. Naturally Splendid President J. Craig Goodwin states, “Canature Processing is the perfect strategic partner to launch HempOmega™ into the pet industry, with their expertise, established product lines and global market reach. Naturally Splendid feels this is just the beginning of the opportunities for HempOmega™ in the pet industry". To learn more about HempOmega™ please visit: To learn more about Canature please visit Naturally Splendid is a multifaceted biotechnology company that is developing, producing, commercializing, and licensing an entirely new generation of plant-derived, bioactive ingredients, nutrient dense foods, and related products. Naturally Splendid is building an expanding portfolio of patents (issued and pending) and proprietary intellectual property focused on the commercial uses of industrial hemp and non-psychoactive cannabinoid compounds in a broad spectrum of applications. Naturally Splendid currently has six innovative divisions: (1) Natera® brand of retail hemp superfood products currently distributed throughout North America and Asia; (2) Chi Hemp Industries Incorporated (Chii) is selling natural and organic hemp products through e-commerce (3) PawsitiveFX® brand of pet care products; (4) Simpli Plant-Based Ingredients Division of plant-derived bulk ingredients including patent-pending HempOmega®; (5) The 12,000-square-foot POS / BPC Facility - which is managed for Naturally Splendid by POS Bio-Sciences - is positioned to offer commercial-scale custom processing solutions for biological materials, such as functional foods and natural health ingredients to a wide range of clients (6) hemp-based cannabinoid nutraceuticals. Naturally Splendid's advanced technologies, industry expertise, and strategic partners allow for the creation of customized solutions with a consistent focus on quality and sustainability. For more information e-mail or call Investor Relations at 604-673-9573 On Behalf of the Board of Directors Mr. Dave Eto CEO, Director Forward-Looking Statements Information set forth in this news release contains forward-looking statements that are based on assumptions as of the date of this news release. These statements reflect management's current estimates, beliefs, intentions and expectations. They are not guarantees of future performance. Naturally Splendid cautions that all forward looking statements are inherently uncertain and that actual performance may be affected by a number of material factors, many of which are beyond Naturally Splendid's control including, the Naturally Splendid's ability to compete with large food and beverage companies; Canature will be successful in development a pet food product line incorporating HempOmega™; sales of any potential products developed will be profitable; sales of shelled hemp seed will continue at existing rates or increase; the ability to complete the sales of all bulk hemp seed purchase orders; and the risk that any of the potential applications may not receive all required regulatory or legal approval. Accordingly, actual and future events, conditions and results may differ materially from the estimates, beliefs, intentions and expectations expressed or implied in the forward looking information. Except as required under applicable securities legislation, Naturally Splendid undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise forward-looking information. NEITHER TSX VENTURE EXCHANGE NOR ITS REGULATION SERVICES PROVIDER (AS THAT TERM IS DEFINED IN THE POLICIES OF THE TSX VENTURE EXCHANGE) ACCEPTS RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS RELEASE.

News Article | December 22, 2016

Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Wearable Technology for Animals 2017-2027: Technologies, Markets, Forecasts" report to their offering. This report concerns the needs, technology and markets for wearable electronics for animals, from pets to livestock and wild animals. We include the back-up equipment and systems and devices that are ingested to rest in a stomach of an animal. We also include devices implanted under the skin. There are currently about 300 manufacturers of such things in the world, the highest percentage in China, making very basic product at lowest price, followed by the USA then other countries we identify, the latter including the primary innovators. Over the coming decade, manufacturers will rise to 500 as the value market increases more than 2.5 times. Most of these devices and their systems are used in the USA and Europe followed by Australia where RFID tagging of cattle is mandatory. RFID ear tags for cows then non-RFID collars on dogs for many purposes are currently the most popular forms of wearable electronics on animals across the world. In 2027, livestock tagging will still be most popular but it will much more often involve diagnostics. Indeed, medical diagnostic tagging of livestock, pets and endangered species will become commonplace. Medical treatment using electronics and electrics will also be steadily adopted following today's practice on humans with heating, cooling, iontophoretic drug delivery and so on, eventually even in response to the fitted diagnostics. The animals most likely to employ wearable electronics in volume in the next decade are those controlled by humans notably certain livestock, work animals and pets that we identify but conservation of wild species will also increase in number and sophistication. Key Topics Covered: 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1.1. Scope 1.2. Dramatic emergence 1.3. Two types - different characteristics 1.4. Forecasts 2016-2027 1.5. Animal electronics: needs, market dynamics, types 1.6. Business dynamics 1.7. Lessons from wearable electronics for humans 1.8. News from May 2016 onwards 1.9. Examples of pet wearables in 2016 / 2017 1.10. Rapid consolidation of pet wearables manufacturers 2. INTRODUCTION 2.1. Challenges and needs 2.2. Methods of traceability 2.3. Legislation driving animal, food and farming RFID 2.4. Eccentricities - 2016 / 2017. 3. RFID TECHNOLOGY, STANDARDS, SUPPLIERS 3.1. Introduction: needs and successes 3.2. Definitions and choices 3.3. RFID technology for animals 3.4. Relevant RFID standards 3.5. Animal RFID: 62 manufacturers profiled 4. OTHER ANIMAL WEARABLE ELECTRONICS 4.1. Two types of application with different characteristics 4.2. Adoption on cows 4.3. The Internet of Pigs is set to fly 4.4. More problems to tackle 4.5. Beyond RFID: examples of 62 products from 49 manufacturers 5. INSIGHTS FROM A VETERINARY SURGEON BY EMMA NAPIER BA MA VETMB (CANTAB) 5.1. Farm Animals 5.2. Horses 5.2.1. Racehorses: injury prevention 5.3. Dogs 5.4. Cats 5.5. Diabetes 6. RFID FOR ANIMALS 6.1. Examples of livestock tagging countries 6.2. Thirty five case studies of RFID for livestock in seventeen countries 6.3. Technical trends APPENDIX 1: TECHNOLOGIES, EPCGLOBAL, RADIO REGULATIONS APPENDIX 2: GLOSSARY Companies Mentioned - Agri-Traçabilité Québec (ATQ) - Alberta Agriculture & Tyson Foods - Asocebú - B3R Country Meats - Chitale Dairy - DEFRA - Delhi - Fevex - Fraser River Sturgeon Conservation Society - Hangzhou City - Iffco-Tokio General Insurance - JRC - Ken Habermehl - Klein Karoo Co-operative - LSCM - Levinoff-Colbex - NAIT - Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission - Pandas - Santa Rita Experimental Farm - Shanghai Xinnong Feed - Shenzhen Hong Kong Innovation Circle - Smithfield Premium Genetics - Smørfjord - Taiwan Government - Thai Government - CoreRFID - US Department of Agriculture - University of Waterloo For more information about this report visit Research and Markets Laura Wood, Senior Manager For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900 U.S. Fax: 646-607-1907 Fax (outside U.S.): +353-1-481-1716

Wang H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Flerchinger G.N.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lemke R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Brandt K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2010

Wang, H., Flerchinger, G. N., Lemke, R., Brandt, K., Goddard, T. and Sprout, C. 2010. Improving SHAW long-term soil moisture prediction for continuous wheat rotations, Alberta, Canada. Can. J. Soil Sci. 90: 37-53. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer-Cropping System Model (DSSAT-CSM) is a widely used modeling package that often simulates wheat yield and biomass well. However, some previous studies reported that its simulation on soil moisture was not always satisfactory. On the other hand, the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model, a more sophisticated, hourly time step soil microclimate model, needs inputs of plant canopy development over time, which are difficult to measure in the field especially for a long-term period (longer than a year). The SHAW model also needs information on surface residue, but treats them as constants. In reality, however, surface residue changes continuously under the effect of tillage, rotation and environment. We therefore proposed to use DSSAT-CSM to simulate dynamics of plant growth and soil surface residue for input into SHAW, so as to predict soil water dynamics. This approach was tested using three conventionally tilled wheat rotations (continuous wheat, wheat-fallow and wheat-wheat-fallow) of a long-term cropping systems study located on a Thin Black Chernozemic clay loam near Three Hills, Alberta, Canada. Results showed that DSSAT-CSM often overestimated the drying of the surface layers in wheat rotations, but consistently overestimated soil moisture in the deep soil. This is likely due to the underestimation of root water extraction despite model predictions that the root system reached 80cm. Among the eight growth/residue parameters simulated by DSSAT-CSM, root depth, leaf area index and residue thickness are the most influential characteristics on the simulation of soil moisture by SHAW. The SHAW model using DSSAT-CSM-simulated information significantly improved prediction of soil moisture at different depths and total soil water at 0-120cm in all rotations with different phases compared with that simulated by DSSAT-CSM.

Reid T.A.,University of Alberta | Yang R.-C.,University of Alberta | Salmon D.F.,Alberta Agriculture | Navabi A.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2011

Breeding spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) specifically for organic production has been suggested by producers and researchers alike. To investigate the effects of management systems on selected spring wheat breeding line performance in multi-location tests in the northern Great Plains, we used a randomly derived population of 79 F6-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between the Canadian hard red spring wheat cultivar AC Barrie and the CIMMYT derived cultivar Attila. The population, including the parents, was grown on conventionally and organically managed land in 12 environments over 3 years. Direct selection in each management system (10% selection intensity based on grain yield) resulted in three lines being retained in each management system, over the multi-location testing. Gains from 10% selection for grain yield in a 'selection' year were 3.4 times greater in conventional multi-site yield trials than in organically managed trials. Two lines (BA 05 and BA 36) ranked in the top 10% of both the conventional and organic selection trial of 2005, remained ranked 2nd and 1st, respectively, under conventional management in multi-site yield trials. However, these lines ranked 53rd and 21st, respectively, for grain yield in the multi-site organic yield trials. Selected lines were each yield stable within the management system in which they were selected. Following replicated multi-location yield trials, three lines from the population (BA 02, 29 and 58) ranked within the highest 10% yielding lines in both conventional and organic systems. The results of this study suggest that selection differences occur across multi-location tests, and that selection for grain yield in organic systems should be conducted within organic systems. It is evident, however, that data obtained from conventional yield trials also has some relevance towards breeding for organic environments. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Malhi S.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Nyborg M.,University of Alberta | Solberg E.D.,Alberta Agriculture | McConkey B.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2011

Crop residue and fertilizer management practices alter some soil properties, but the magnitude of change depends on soil type and climatic conditions. Field experiments with mainly barley (and canola, wheat, triticale, or pea in a few years) under conventional tillage were conducted from 1983 to 2009 at Breton (Gray Luvisol (Typic Haplocryalf) loam) and Ellerslie (Black Chernozem (Albic Argicryoll) clay loam), Alberta, Canada, to determine the effects of straw management (straw removed (SRem) and straw retained (SRet)) and N fertilizer rate (0, 25, 50, and 75 kg N ha-1) on total organic C (TOC) and N (TON), light fraction organic C (LFOC), and N (LFON) in the 0-7. 5 and 7. 5-15 cm, pH in the 0-7. 5, 7. 5-15, and 15-20 cm and extractable P, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N in the 0-15, 15-30, 30-60, and 60-90 cm soil layers. The SRet and N fertilizer treatments usually had higher mass of TOC, TON, LFOC, and LFON in soil at Breton, but only of LFOC and LFON in soil at Ellerslie compared with the corresponding SRem and zero-N control treatments. The responses of soil organic C and N to management practices were more pronounced for N fertilization than straw management. There were significant correlations among most soil organic C or N fractions, especially at Breton. Linear regressions between crop residue C or N input, or rate of fertilizer N applied and soil organic C or N were significant in most cases at Breton, but only for LFOC and LFON at Ellerslie. At Breton, compared with zero-N rate, the C sequestration efficiency of additional crop residue C input was 5. 8%, 20. 1%, and 20. 4% in SRet and 17. 2%, 28. 0%, and 30. 1% in SRem treatments at the 25, 50, and 75 kg N ha-1 rates, respectively. The effects of crop residue management and N fertilization on chemical properties were generally similar for both contrasting soil types. There was no effect of crop residue management on soil pH, extractable P and residual nitrate-N. Extractable P and pH in the top 0-15 cm soil decreased significantly with N application in both soil types. Residual nitrate-N (though quite low in Breton soil) increased with application of N and also indicated some downward movement in the soil profile up to 90 cm depth in Ellerslie soil. There was generally no effect of any treatment on ammonium-N in soil. In conclusion, straw retention and N application improved organic C and N in soil, and generally differences were more pronounced for light fraction than total organic C and N, and between the most extreme treatments (SRem0 vs. SRet75). Application of N fertilizer reduced extractable P and pH in the surface soil, and showed accumulation and downward leaching of nitrate-N in the soil profile. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Malhi S.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Nyborg M.,University of Alberta | Goddard T.,Alberta Agriculture | Puurveen D.,University of Alberta
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2011

Long-term use of soil, crop and fertilizer management practices alters some soil properties, but the magnitude of change depends on soil type and climatic conditions. A field experiment with a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-canola (Brassica napus L.) rotation was conducted on a Gray Luvisol (Typic Cryoboralf) loam soil at Breton, Alberta, Canada. Effects of 19 or 27 years (from 1980 to 1998 or 2006 growing seasons) of tillage (zero tillage [ZT] and conventional tillage [CT]), straw management (straw removed [S Rem] and straw retained [S Ret]) and N fertilizer rate (0,50 and 100 kg N ha -1 in S Ret, and 0 kg N ha -1 in S Rem plots) were determined on total organic C (TOC) and N (TON), light fraction organic C (LFOC) and N (LFON), macro organic matter C (MOM-C) and N (MOM-N), microbial biomass C (MB-C), and mineralizable C (C min) and N (N min) in the 0-7.5 and 7.5-15 cm or 0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm soil layers. Zero tillage and S Ret tended to have higher, and N fertilizer treatment usually had higher mass of TOC, TON, LFOC, LFON, C min and N min in soil compared to the corresponding CT, S Rem and zero-N control treatments, especially in the surface soil layers. Soil MB-C, MOM-C and MOM-N in soil generally tended to be higher with S Ret than S Rem, and also with N fertilizer than zero-N. There was no additional beneficial effect of ZT in increasing MB-C in soil. There were close and significant correlations among most soil organic C or N fractions, except for MB-C which did not correlate with MOM-N, and N min did not correlate with MOM-C. Linear regressions between crop residue C input and soil organic C or N were significant in most cases, except for MB-C and N min. Compared to the 1979 data, all treatments that did not receive N fertilizer (CTS Rem0, CTS Ret0, ZTS Rem0 and ZTS Ret0) showed a decrease in TOC concentration in the 0-15 cm soil layer over time, with the highest decrease in the CTS Rem0 treatment. Straw retention and N fertilizer application at 50 and 100 kg N ha -1 under both ZT (ZTS Ret50 and ZTS Ret100) and CT (CTS Ret50 and CTS Ret100) resulted in a strongest increase in TOC during the first 11 years, and since then the TOC decreased under both N rates but 50 kg N ha -1 rate under CT (CTS Ret50) showed the strongest negative effect on TOC in soil. In conclusion, elimination of tillage, straw retention and N application all improved organic C and N in soil, and generally differences were more pronounced for light fraction organic C and N, and between the most extreme treatments (CTS Rem0 vs. ZTS Ret100) for each dynamic organic fraction. This may be better for the long-term sustainability of soil quality and productivity. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Malhi S.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Nyborg M.,University of Alberta | Goddard T.,Alberta Agriculture | Puurveen D.,University of Alberta
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2011

Long-term use of soil, crop residue and fertilizer management practices may affect some soil properties, but the magnitude of change depends on soil type and climatic conditions. Two field experiments with barley, wheat, or canola in a rotation on Gray Luvisol (Typic Cryoboralf) loam at Breton and Black Chernozem (Albic Argicryoll) loam at Ellerslie, Alberta, Canada, were conducted to determine the effects of 19 or 27 years (from 1980 to 1998 or 2006 growing seasons) of tillage (zero tillage [ZT] and conventional tillage [CT]), straw management (straw removed [SRem] and straw retained [SRet]) and N fertilizer rate (0,50 and 100 kg N ha-1 in SRet, and 0 kg N ha-1 in SRem plots) on pH, extractable P, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in the 0-7.5, 7.5-15, 15-30 and 30-40 cm or 0-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-90 and 90-120 cm soil layers. The effects of tillage, crop residue management and N fertilization on these chemical properties were usually similar for both contrasting soil types. There was no effect of tillage and residue management on soil pH, but application of N fertilizer reduced pH significantly (by up to 0.5 units) in the top 15 cm soil layers. Extractable P in the 0-15 cm soil layer was higher or tended to be higher under ZT than CT, or with SRet than SRem in many cases, but it decreased significantly with N application (by 18.5 kg P ha-1 in Gray Luvisol soil and 20.5 kg P ha-1 in Black Chernozem soil in 2007). Residual nitrate-N (though quite low in the Gray Luvisol soil in 1998) increased with application of N (by 17.8 kg N ha-1 in the 0-120 cm layer in Gray Luvisol soil and 23.8 kg N ha-1 in 0-90 cm layer in Black Chernozem soil in 2007) and also indicated some downward movement in the soil profile up to 90 cm depth. There was generally no effect of any treatment on ammonium-N in soil. In conclusion, elimination of tillage and retention of straw increased but N fertilization decreased extractable P in the surface soil. Application of N fertilizer reduced pH in the surface soil, and showed accumulation and downward leaching of nitrate-N in the soil profile. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Nicholsa M.A.,Massey University | Savidov N.A.,Alberta Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Aquaponics is the land based production of fish in tanks combined with the recirculation of the water from the fish tanks through hydroponic systems to produce high value horticultural crops. The waste products from the fish are converted by a bio-filter into soluble nutrients which are absorbed by the plants, and allow "clean" water to be returned back to the fish. Thus it produces valuable fish protein with a minimal pollution of fresh water resources, while at the same time producing horticultural (usually vegetable) crops. The production of fertilizers is becoming increasingly expensive due to high prices of fossil fuels, and this may have long term implications for nutrient use in agriculture in the future, particularly in developing countries. Aquaponics uses waste products derived from animals and plants which are fed to the fish, and thus converted into valuable animal protein and fresh vegetables. With the world's fresh water resources limited, aquaponics would appear to have considerable potential for developing countries.

Malhi S.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Nyborg M.,University of Alberta | Solberg E.D.,Alberta Agriculture | Dyck M.F.,University of Alberta | Puurveen D.,University of Alberta
Field Crops Research | Year: 2011

Retention and/or reincorporation of plant residues increases soil organic nitrogen (N) levels over the long-term is associated with increased crop yields. There is still uncertainty, however, about the interaction between crop residue (straw) retention and N fertilizer rates and sources. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of straw management (straw removed [SRem] and straw retained [SRet]), N fertilizer rate (0, 25, 50 and 75kgNha-1) and N source (urea and polymer-coated urea [called ESN]) under conventional tillage on seed yield, straw yield, total N uptake in seed+straw and N balance sheet. Field experiments with barley monoculture (1983-1996), and wheat/barley-canola-triticale-pea rotation (1997-2009) were conducted on two contrasting soil types (Gray Luvisol [Typic Haplocryalf] loam soil at Breton; Black Chernozem [Albic Argicryoll] silty clay loam at Ellerslie) in north-central Alberta, Canada. On the average, SRet produced greater seed yield (by 205-220kgha-1), straw yield (by 154-160kgha-1) and total N uptake in seed+straw (by 5.2kgNha-1) than SRem in almost all cases in both periods at Ellerslie, and only in the 1997-2009 period at Breton (by 102kgseedha-1, 196kg straw ha-1 and by 3.7kgNha-1) for both N sources. There was generally a considerable increase in seed yield, straw yield and total N uptake in seed+straw from applied N up to 75kgNha-1 rate for both N sources at both sites and more so at Breton, but the response to applied N decreased with increasing N rate. The ESN was superior to urea in increasing seed yield (by 109kgha-1), straw yield (by 80kgha-1) and total N uptake in seed+straw (by 2.4kgNha-1) in the 1983-1996 period at Breton (mainly at the 25 and 50kgNha-1 rates). But, urea produced greater straw yield (by 95kgha-1) and total N uptake in seed+straw (by 3.3kgNha-1) than ESN in the 1983-1996 period at Ellerslie. The N balance sheets over the 1983-2009 study duration indicated large amounts of applied N unaccounted for (ranged from 740 to 1518kgNha-1 at Breton and from 696 to 1334kgNha-1 at Ellerslie), suggesting a great potential for N loss from the soil-plant system through denitrification and/or nitrate leaching, and from the soil mineral N pool by N immobilization. In conclusion, the findings suggest that long-term retention of crop residue may gradually improve soil productivity. The effectiveness of N source varied with soil type. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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