Vogt E.T.C.,University Utrecht |
Vogt E.T.C.,Albemarle Corporation |
Weckhuysen B.M.,University Utrecht
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst materials. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Albemarle Corporation | Date: 2014-03-14
Disclosed are sorbents having superior water leachability performance characteristics especially when used as sorbents in semi-dry (CDS), high moisture (SDA), and fully wet SO
Albemarle Corporation | Date: 2015-01-12
This invention relates to a process for producing compounds derived from 9,10-Dihydro-9-Oxa-10-Phosphaphenantrene-10-oxide (DOPO). In particular, the invention relates to producing DOPO-derived compounds by reacting DOPO with diol compounds in the presence of a catalyst. This invention also relates to DOPO derived composition containing a high melting point diastereomer. The DOPO derived compounds may be useful as flame-retardants.
Albemarle Corporation | Date: 2014-10-15
Thermally-activated cellulosic-based carbon is rendered more thermally stable by exposure to a halogen and/or a halogen-containing compound. Such treated cellulosic-based carbon is suitable for use in mitigating the content of hazardous substances in flue gases, especially flue gases having a temperature within the range of from about 100 C. to about 420 C.
Albemarle Corporation | Date: 2016-01-13
Poultry carcasses are contacted with water treated with one or more specified dihalodialkylhydantoin biocides in a processing operation downstream from a scalding tank. The aqueous effluent from that downstream operation or from any location further downstream is recycled to the scalding tank. Surprisingly, the bromine residues from the dihalodialkylhydantoin biocides are much more thermally unstable than, for example, the commonly used microbiocide, sodium hypochlorite. Thus, the effluent from the scalding tank has its active bromine content significantly reduced before it is sent to a water purification facility wherein microbial action is used to reduce the BOD of the waste water before its release to the environment. Thus, injury to this desired microbial action is reduced. In addition, the recycle reduces water consumption in the overall poultry processing operation.