Argoff C.E.,Albany Medical Center
Current Medical Research and Opinion | Year: 2011
Objective: To conduct a systematic review of evidence supporting the efficacy and safety profiles of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) introduced in the last decade for the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), including their analgesic effects, ability to improve function, and adverse event profiles relative to current standards of care. Research design and methods: Systematic search of the literature for NSAIDs approved by the FDA (2000â€"2010). Results: One new orally-administered NSAID molecule (meloxicam), two orally-administered NSAID formulations (naproxenâ€‰plus lansoprazole; oxycodone/ibuprofen), and three topical NSAID formulations (diclofenac patch, gel, and solution) were approved by the FDA (2000â€"2010). A systematic literature review found evidence to support efficacy in treating patients with OA for all agents except oxycodone/ibuprofen, which has not been studied in this patient population, although ibuprofen and immediate-release oxycodone have been studied individually for OA pain. Evidence quality was inconsistent, with several agents lacking long-term, controlled trials against active comparators, and functional end points inconsistently met. Although low-dose meloxicam and naproxen plus lansoprazole offer a reduced risk of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) events, cardiovascular and renal risks remain similar to traditional oral NSAID therapy. Further, only lower doses of meloxicam appear to carry a reduced risk of GI events. Diclofenac patch, gel, and solution preparations offer the potential for reduced GI, cardiovascular, and renal adverse events. The level of evidence available to support the efficacy and safety of these agents for long-term treatment of patients with OA differs, with some having only short-term trials, while others have longer-duration trials with active comparators. Conclusions: By expanding the treatment armamentarium, newly-approved NSAID agents may improve the ability of clinicians to tailor analgesic therapy for their diverse patient populations and to achieve realistic functional improvements. The comparisons in this article were limited to drugs that received approval after 2000 and should be considered accordingly. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd.
Tilney P.,Albany Medical Center
Air Medical Journal | Year: 2011
A flight team was activated for a scene call in rural Vermont for a patient with apparent carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Per ground emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, this 55-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) was found unresponsive in his parked vehicle in his garage. "Dryer hose" tubing ran from the tailpipe into the rear window of his sedan. EMS providers also stated that a variety of unidentified pills were found on the floormat. There were no pill bottles in the vehicle or in the home to identify the medications. Whether the pills had been consumed was unclear. Ground EMS removed the patient from the vehicle and immediately placed the patient on high-flow oxygen. The duration of the exposure was unknown. © 2011 Air Medical Journal Associates.
Judson M.A.,Albany Medical Center
Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2015
Sarcoidosis has innumerable clinical manifestations, as the disease may affect every body organ. Furthermore, the severity of sarcoidosis involvement may range from an asymptomatic state to a life-threatening condition. This manuscript reviews a wide variety of common and less common clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis. These manifestations are presented organ by organ, although additional sections describe systemic and multiorgan presentations of sarcoidosis. The lung is the organ most commonly involved with sarcoidosis with at least 90 % of sarcoidosis patients demonstrating lung involvement in most series. The skin, eye, liver, and peripheral lymph node are the next most commonly clinically involved organs in most series, with the frequency of involvement ranging from 10 to 30 %. The actual frequency of sarcoidosis organ involvement is probably much higher as it is frequently asymptomatic and may avoid detection. This is particularly common with lung, liver, cardiac, and bone involvement. Cardiac sarcoidosis is present in 25 % of all sarcoidosis but only causes clinical problems in 5 % of them. Nevertheless, unlike sarcoidosis involvement of most other organs, it may be suddenly fatal. Therefore, it is important to screen for cardiac sarcoidosis in all sarcoidosis patients. All sarcoidosis patients should also be screened for eye involvement as asymptomatic patients may have eye involvement that may cause permanent vision impairment. Pulmonary fibrosis from sarcoidosis is usually slowly progressive but may be life-threatening because of the development of respiratory failure, pulmonary hypertension, or hemoptysis related to a mycetoma or bronchiectasis. Some manifestations of sarcoidosis are not organ-specific and probably are the result of a release of mediators from the sarcoid granuloma. Two such manifestations include small fiber neuropathy and fatigue syndromes, and they are observed in a large percentage of patients. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Gandhi R.H.,Albany Medical Center |
German J.W.,Albany Medical Center
Neurosurgical Focus | Year: 2013
Object. A wide variety of spinal intradural pathology traditionally has been treated from a midline posterior laminectomy using standard microsurgical techniques. This approach has been successful in treating the pathology; however, it carries a risk of postoperative complications including CSF leakage, wound infection, and spinal instability. The authors describe a minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approach to treating spinal intradural pathology with a low rate of postoperative complications. Methods. Through a retrospective review of a prospectively collected surgical database, the authors identified 26 patients who underwent 27 surgeries via an MIS approach for intradural pathology of the spine. Using a tubular retractor system and an operative microscope, the authors were able to treat all patients with a unilateral, paramedian, and muscle-splitting technique. They then collected data regarding operative blood loss, length of stay, imaging characteristics, and outcomes. Results. Eight cervical, 8 thoracic, and 11 lumbar intradural pathological entities, which included 14 oncological lesions, 4 Chiari I malformations, 4 arachnoid cysts, 3 tethered cords, 1 syrinx, and 1 chronic visceral pain, were treated via an MIS approach. The average blood loss was 197 ml and the average hospital stay was 3 days. One patient had to return to the operating room for noninfectious wound dehiscence. One patient required reoperation 18 months after the initial surgery for recurrence of the initial pathology. There was no CSF leak, no infection, and no spinal instability associated with the initial surgery on follow-up. Conclusions. Intradural spinal pathology can be safely and effectively treated with MIS approaches without an increased risk of neurological injury. This approach may also offer a reduced postoperative length of stay, risk of CSF leak, and risk of future spinal instability. © AANS, 2013.
Smith H.S.,Albany Medical Center |
Voss B.,Cumberland Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Drugs | Year: 2012
Intravenous NSAIDs are playing an increasingly large role in analgesia, anti-inflammation and antipyresis in the hospitalized setting. For many years, ketorolac was the only intravenous NSAID available in the US, but in 2009 intravenous ibuprofen was approved by the US FDA for the treatment of pain and fever in adults. In developing intravenous ibuprofen, a range of times of infusion and dosing levels have been utilized and compared with the oral route of administration. The earliest studies utilized a 60-minute infusion, and later a 30-minute infusion was used for the pivotalregistration studies demonstrating efficacy and safety. Another recent trial in healthy volunteers demonstrated a safe and tolerable rapid infusion (57 minute) of intravenous ibuprofen. The pharmacokinetic data from all of the clinical trials on 400 and 800mg doses of intravenous ibuprofen were compiled, and pharmacokinetic modelling was utilized to simulate any data not acquired in the clinical studies. The pharmacokinetic profile of the following doses was modelled: 30-minute infusion of 800mg intravenous ibuprofen, 5- to 7-minute infusion of 400mg intravenous ibuprofen and 400mg ibuprofen oral tablet. These pharmacokinetic analyses revealed that, in general, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) decreases considerably as the length of the infusion increases and that an oral dose is not able to achieve the Cmax level of any intravenous dose. For the rapid infusion, Cmax was twice that of the oral dose and, as expected, time to Cmax (tmax) was much more rapid than with the oral dose. However, the oral dose still maintained virtually 100 oral bioavailability. The efficacy of intravenous ibuprofen in terms of pain and fever has also been studied and this review found the drug to be efficacious for both indications. Future areas of study should include assessment of the analgesic and antipyretic efficacy of a rapid (5- to 10-minute) infusion and further assessment of pre-emptive administration of intravenous ibuprofen as part of a multimodal analgesic approach in the surgical setting. © 2012 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.