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Alharbi R.A.,University of Surrey | Alharbi R.A.,Albaha University | Pettengell R.,St George's, University of London | Pandha H.S.,University of Surrey | Morgan R.,University of Surrey
Leukemia | Year: 2013

The homeobox (HOX) genes are a highly conserved family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that specify cell identity in early development and, subsequently, in a number of adult processes including hematopoiesis. The dysregulation of HOX genes is associated with a number of malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), where they have been shown to support the immortalization of leukemic cells both as chimeric partners in fusion genes and when overexpressed in their wild-type form. This review covers our current understanding of the role of HOX genes in normal hematopoiesis, AML and ALL, with particular emphasis on the similarities and differences of HOX function in these contexts, their hematopoietic downstream gene targets and implications for therapy. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Mccauley M.E.,Center for Maternal and Newborn Health | van den Broek N.,Center for Maternal and Newborn Health | Dou L.,University of Liverpool | Othman M.,Albaha University
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews | Year: 2015

Background: The World Health Organization recommends routine vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy or lactation in areas with endemic vitamin A deficiency (where night blindness occurs), based on the expectation that supplementation will improve maternal and newborn outcomes including mortality, morbidity and prevention of anaemia or infection. Objectives: To review the effects of supplementation of vitamin A, or one of its derivatives, during pregnancy, alone or in combination with other vitamins and micronutrients, on maternal and newborn clinical outcomes. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria: All randomised or quasi-randomised trials, including cluster-randomised trials, evaluating the effect of vitamin A supplementation in pregnant women. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Main results: We reviewed 106 reports of 35 trials, published between 1931 and 2015. We included 19 trials including over 310,000 women, excluded 15 trials and one is ongoing. Overall, seven trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, three were high risk of bias and for nine it was unclear. 1) Vitamin A alone versus placebo or no treatment Overall, when trial results are pooled, vitamin A supplementation does not affect the risk of maternal mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.20; four trials Ghana, Nepal, Bangladesh, UK, high quality evidence), perinatal mortality (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.07; one study, high quality evidence), neonatal mortality, stillbirth, neonatal anaemia, preterm birth (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.01, five studies, high quality evidence), or the risk of having a low birthweight baby. Vitamin A supplementation reduces the risk of maternal night blindness (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.98; two trials). There is evidence that vitamin A supplements may reduce maternal clinical infection (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.99, five trials; South Africa, Nepal, Indonesia, Tanzania, UK, low quality evidence) and maternal anaemia (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.94; three studies, moderate quality evidence). 2) Vitamin A alone versus micronutrient supplements without vitamin A Vitamin A alone compared to micronutrient supplements without vitamin A does not decrease maternal clinical infection (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.18, two trials, 591 women). No other primary or secondary outcomes were reported 3) Vitamin A with other micronutrients versus micronutrient supplements without vitamin A Vitamin A supplementation (with other micronutrients) does not decrease perinatal mortality (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.10 to 2.69; one study, low quality evidence), maternal anaemia (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.09; three studies, low quality evidence), maternal clinical infection (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.13; I2 = 45%, two studies, low quality evidence) or preterm birth (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.93; one study, low quality evidence). In HIV-positive women vitamin A supplementation given with other micronutrients was associated with fewer low birthweight babies (< 2.5 kg) in the supplemented group in one study (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96; one study, 594 women). Authors' conclusions: The pooled results of three large trials in Nepal, Ghana and Bangladesh (with over 153,500 women) do not currently suggest a role for antenatal vitamin A supplementation to reduce maternal or perinatal mortality. However, the populations studied were probably different with regard to baseline vitamin A status and there were problems with follow-up of women. There is good evidence that antenatal vitamin A supplementation reduces maternal night blindness, maternal anaemia for women who live in areas where vitamin A deficiency is common or who are HIV-positive. In addition the available evidence suggests a reduction in maternal infection, but these data are not of a high quality. © 2016 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Aldmour I.,Albaha University
International Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2014

Computer engineering (CE) is a discipline that best serves the semiconductor, micro-architecture, computer equipment manufacturers, and other similar high tech industries which generally do not exist in developing communities. Therefore, there is often a mismatch problem between the curricula offered by CE departments and the actual needs of such communities. Nevertheless, most attempts for engineering curricula revitalization in developing countries focus on bridging the gap in applying the curriculum models, designed for, and meant to serve the developed communities. Hence, this work presents a new curriculum approach in which the student's learning experience is expanded outsideCEto include a technology area of interest to the community. The article revises the typical CE curriculum model and visualizes it as a funnel structure, called the Single Funnel Model (SFM). SFM directs students to core computer engineering courses or courses in a specific concentration area. However, the need for concentration in developing communities with moderate-tech industries in a country like Saudi-Arabia is questionable. Hence, to better serve such communities, it is suggested that concentration areas be replaced by technology wide areas called Technology Expansion (TE) areas. Such a curriculum structure is called the Dual Successive Funnels Model (DSFM). To assess the problem and the suggested model, members of the academic community in the field in universities in the Middle East and Gulf countries were surveyed. The investigation revealed that the academics were, on the average, neutral on the extent of the problem, whereas they think that the new DSFM based on TE suits the needs of their developing communities better than the current SFM based on concentration. They also think that it can help the students develop their professional skills and lead to better integration in work environments. © 2014 TEMPUS Publications.

Objectives: To examine the effects on bone tissues of immediate implant-supported mandibular overdentures with cusped or cuspless teeth. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Dental Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Egypt, over a 12-month period from September 2013 to September 2014. Twenty patients were treated with immediate implant-supported overdentures: one group received overdentures with cusped teeth, and the other group received overdentures with cuspless teeth. Te rate of implant success was assessed clinically and radiographically at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Te data were collected by a questionnaire, an observation checklist, and radiography. Te data were then analyzed using computerized methods. Results: Overdentures with cusped teeth showed a significant improvement in the clinical criteria, including the absence of clinical implant mobility, pain, and bone resorption, while the clinical criteria for the absence of peri-implant radiolucency were insignificantly different between the 2 groups (p>0.05). Tere were no significant differences in the clinical evaluations for bone levels at the time of insertion or 3 months after insertions, while significant differences were found at 6, 9, and 12 months after insertion. Conclusion: Overdentures with cusped teeth supported by immediate implants were found superior regarding many clinical criteria than those cuspless counterparts. © 2016, Saudi Arabian Armed Forces Hospital. All rights reserved.

Alqumber M.A.,Albaha University
Saudi Medical Journal | Year: 2014

Objectives: To determine Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) prevalence on retail surfaces and shoppers plastic bags.Methods: From 20 June to 10 August 2011, in a crosssectional epidemiological study, 17 supermarkets from 2 cities, Albaha and Altaif, Saudi Arabia were sampled. A total of 800 samples, which comprised 200 samples per surveyed surface, were studied. These included baskets, trolleys, conveyer belts, and outgoing shoppers’ plastic bags. Clostridium difficile strains were isolated. The isolates were characterized using ribotyping and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of toxin A (tcdA), toxin B (tcdB), binary toxin (cdtB), and toxin C (tcdC) genes. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined on a Muller-Hinton agar with 5% sheep blood agar using E-tests.Results: Overall, the C. difficile prevalence on sampled surfaces was 0.75%. The highest prevalence was found on retail baskets and trolleys, followed by plastic bags. A total of 5 different ribotypes were identified. Alterations in tcdC were detected in ribotype 027 and BT1. All the identified isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, but resistant to levofloxacin.Conclusion: In this study, C. difficile was present at a rate of 0.75% on supermarket surfaces. Spore disinfection of implicated surfaces may be necessary to control any community-acquired infections caused by this pathogen. © 2014, Saudi Medical Journal. All rights reserved.

Arafa K.A.,Albaha University
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

Three different designs of clasp (RPI clasp, wrought wire clasp and RPL clasp) designed for distalextension removable partial dentures (RPDs) were assessed in Kennedy class I patients' mouths. The assessment, included the Gingival index, mobility and epithelial attachment loss of the abutments when loaded on a free-end RPD occlusal surface. The abutment mobility of the three types of retainers were all within the 'mobile ability area' except the wrought wire clasp. The greatest tooth mobility was observed with the wrought wire clasps, followed by RPL clasp. From the analysis the following was concluded that, the different clasps do influence the occlusal load distribution.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Papio hamadryas baboons, known reservoirs of several infectious diseases, roam and deposit their excreta indiscriminately on footpaths, parks, and streets of the city peripheries of Taif, Baha, and Abha in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Nonetheless, city centers of these places are free of baboons. This study aims to determine the impact of baboons on human gastrointestinal health. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional analytical ecological study conducted in 3 cities located in southwestern Saudi Arabia between July 2011 and July 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the impact of these baboons on the human health through a coprological survey of infectious agents of baboons and humans in these 3 cities using macroscopic and microscopic analyses, before and after parasite concentration, and culturing of bacteria on selective and differential media, which were then identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Baboon fecal samples (n=823) were collected from city peripheries. Two groups of human fecal samples, each consisting of 795 samples were collected, one from city centers and the second from city peripheries where baboons intermingle with the human population. RESULTS: Baboon fecal samples were the most contaminated with infectious agents, except for Staphylococcus aureus, which was more commonly present in human fecal samples collected from city peripheries. Human fecal samples collected form city peripheries showed higher rates of most infective agents than those collected from city centers. CONCLUSION: This indicates that baboons are medically important reservoirs of infectious agents associated with higher human coproprevalence of gastrointestinal infectious agents. © 2015, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre. All rights reserved.

Alqumber M.A.,Albaha University
Saudi Medical Journal | Year: 2014

Objectives: To investigate for the presence of mycobacteria at water dams of Albaha, Saudi Arabia. Methods: An epidemiological study was conducted between 20 - 30 June 2013 in the Albaha region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Five hundred and twenty samples (sand, wet stones, clay, and decayed vegetation) were collected from 13 dams in the region. These locations were: 3 dams from Alaqiq city (Trad, Alaqiq, and Almshereq); 4 dams from Almandaq city (Almudlamat, Alkhrar, Alsader, and Medhas); one dam from Albaha city (Shehba'a); and 5 dams from Baljerashi city (Alzarawah, Alareshaen, Almatwah, Alheajh, and Almarbah). Samples from these locations (n=520) were inoculated on Lowenstein-Jensen media. Te isolated Mycobacterium (M.) obtained were identified by standard culture, enzymatic tests, biochemical characteristics, comparison of mycolic acid profiles, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and restriction fragment patterns of the hsp65 gene polymerase chain reaction product. Results: Mycobacterium isolates were recovered from 79% of the samples obtained from all types of samples and locations. A total of 145 of the isolates were found to belong to the 11 Mycobacterium species: 5 M. intracellulare, 8 M. abscessus, 9 M. szulgai, 12 M. fortuitum, 12 M. avium, 14 M. kansasii, 15 M. simiae, 15 M. gordonae, 16 M. terrae complex, 18 M. chelonae, and 21 M. malmoense. Conclusion: Mycobacterium species is present at high percentages in Albaha dams. The findings support a nationwide study to understand the clinical importance of environmental Mycobacterium in Saudi Arabia.

Alsokari S.S.,Albaha University
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

The effect of kinetin, spermine and their combination on growth vigor, photosynthetic pigments, some metabolites, some enzymes, polyamines and productivity of salt-stressed Vigna sinensis plants was investigated. Salt stress reduced all evaluated growth criteria and yield components of used plants. Chlorophyll (CHL (a, b, carotenoids, carbohydrates, protein, spermidine and spermine level as well as and amylase activity were also decreased in response to salinity. On the other hand, proline, K+, Na+ and putrescine concentration, and peroxidase activity were increased in the salt-stressed plants. Exogenous application of kinetin and spermine mitigated the deleterious effects of salinity stress on growth and yield of the used plants. Conversely, the combined treatment of kinetin and spermine induced additional reduction in growth and yield of the stressed plants, and the effect appeared to be constitutive. The protective effect of kinetin and spermine on V. sinensis plants appeared mainly due to the enhancement effect of these growth regulators on chlorophylls and protein content and polyamines titer. © 2010.

Bayahia H.,Albaha University
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2016

The gas-phase deoxygenation of propionic acid was investigated in the presence of Co-Mo catalysts in N2 or H2 flow at 200-400°C. In the presence of N2, the main product was 3-pentanone with other deoxygenates and some light gases e.g., ethane and ethene. Using H2 flow, the catalyst was active for decarboxylation and decarbonylation of acid and the yields of ethane and ethene. The decarboxylation and decarbonylation reactions increased with increasing temperature. Cobalt-molybdenum supported on alumina showed better performance than bulk catalyst, especially at 400°C in the presence of N2 for the ketonization of propionic acid to form 3-pentanone as the main product. Bulk and supported catalysts were characterized by surface area porosity (BET), thermogravimetric analysis and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) of pyridine adsorption. © 2016, Chemical Publishing Co. All rights reserved.

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