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University of Technology of Compiègne, France

Al-Ne'Aimi M.M.,University of Mosul | Al-Khuder M.M.,Albaath University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

In this study, diacetylmonoximebenzoylhydrazone (L1H 2) and 1,4-diacetylbenzene bis(benzoyl hydrazone) (L 2H2) were synthesized by the condensation of benzohydrazide with diacetyl monoxime and 1,4-diacetylbenzene, respectively. Complexes of these ligands with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) inos were prepared with a metal:ligand ratio of 1:2 for L1H2 ligand, and 1:1 for L2H2 ligand. The ligands and their complexes were elucidated on the basis of elemental analyses CHN, AAS, FT-IR, 1H- and 13C NMR spectra, UV-vis spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Results show the L1H2 ligand act as monoanionic O,N,N-tridentate and coordination takes place in the enol form through the oxime nitrogen, the imine nitrogen and the enolate oxygen atoms with a N4O2 donor environment, while the L 2H2 ligand act as a dianionic O,N,N,O-tetradentate and coordination takes place in the enol form through the enolate oxygen and the azomethine nitrogen atoms with a N2O2 donor environment. These results are consistent with the formation of mononuclear metal (II) complexes [M(L1H)2], and binuclear polymeric metal (II) complexes [{M2(L2)}n]. The extraction ability of both ligands were examined in chloroform by the liquid-liquid extraction of selected transition metal [Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+] cations. The effects of pH and contact time on the percentage extraction of metal (II) ions were studied under the optimum extraction conditions. The (L1H2) ligand shows strong binding ability toward copper(II) and lead(II) ions, while the (L 2H2) ligand shows strong binding ability toward nickel(II) and zinc(II) ions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Almasri R.,Albaath University | Muneer T.,Napier University | Cullinane K.,Napier University
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

Statistics show that the number of cars per capita in Syria is still low, but that the figure has more than doubled since 2004. Syria also suffers from inadequate public transport provision, poor infrastructure and the absence of suitable traffic management systems, with the average speed of road transport in Damascus at about 4-5. km/h. Only until very recently, a comprehensive network for the continuous monitoring of air pollutants has been lacking. This paper reviews, collates and synthesises the results of numerous studies of Syrian road transport, with an emphasis on air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors. It is revealed that what studies that have been done show that the air quality in Syrian urban areas falls below established national air quality standards, especially during winter when the demand for heating is high. The paper proposes a number of suggestions to improve air quality in Syria by using greener and more public transport, promoting and incentivising rational and efficient energy consumption in all sectors, taking advantage of available renewable energy resources, establishing an active network for routine measurement of pollution, setting local emissions standards that are in line with international standards and which are supported by the imposition of penalties, fines or taxation on polluting agents. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Alahmad Y.,University Paris - Sud | Alahmad Y.,Albaath University | Tran N.T.,University Paris - Sud | Le Potier I.,University Paris - Sud | And 3 more authors.
Electrophoresis | Year: 2011

We present a new CZE method, which uses a polyethylene oxide-coated capillary to separate native HSA from more than five of its structural variants. These variants include oxidized, truncated, and cysteinylated forms of HSA which can all be found in biopharmaceutical products. Both CE and MS confirmed the high degree of heterogeneity of HSA preparations. Recovery studies demonstrated that adsorption of HSA on the capillary was significantly reduced under the conditions we developed, which led to a satisfactory repeatability (RSD for migration times and relative peak areas were less than 0.2 and 7.0%, respectively). Assignment of the main peaks was attempted using in vitro degraded/stressed HSA. We used our method to test batch-to-batch comparability and detected slight quantitative differences in the proportion of native HSA in batches produced from different fractionation methods. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Nasr M.,Ain Shams University | Nasr M.,University of Central Lancashire | Najlah M.,Albaath University | D'Emanuele A.,University of Central Lancashire | Elhissi A.,University of Central Lancashire
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2014

Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were evaluated as nanocarriers for pulmonary delivery of the model poorly soluble anti-asthma drug beclometasone dipropionate (BDP) using G3, G4 and G4(12) dendrimers. BDP-loaded dendrimers were characterized for drug solubility, in vitro drug release and aerosolization properties using three nebulizers: Pari LC Sprint (air-jet), Aeroneb Pro (actively vibrating-mesh) and Omron MicroAir (passively vibrating-mesh) nebulizers. Solubilization of BDP using dendrimers was increased by increasing the dendrimer generation and by using higher pH media. In vitro release studies showed that BDP when complexed with dendrimers exhibited a sustained release, and for all dendrimer formulations less than 35% of the drug was released after 8 h. Nebulization studies revealed that aerosol performance was dependent on nebulizer rather than dendrimer generation. Nebulization output values for the Pari (air-jet) and Aeroneb Pro (active mesh) nebulizers were in the range of 90-92% and 85-89% respectively compared to 57-63% for the Omron (passive mesh) nebulizer. The size of the droplets generated from the jet nebulizer was slightly smaller and aerosol polydispersity was lower compared to both mesh devices. The "fine particle fraction (FPF)" of the aerosols was in the following order: Pari (air-jet) > Aeroneb Pro (active mesh) > Omron (passive mesh). This study demonstrates that BDP-dendrimers have potential for pulmonary inhalation using air-jet and vibrating-mesh nebulizers. Moreover, the aerosol characteristics are influenced by nebulizer design rather than dendrimer generation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Najlah M.,Albaath University | Parveen I.,University of Central Lancashire | Alhnan M.A.,University of Central Lancashire | Ahmed W.,University of Central Lancashire | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2014

Abstract Using latex microspheres as model suspensions, the influence of suspension particle size (1, 4.5 and 10 μm) on the properties of aerosols produced using Pari LC Sprint (air-jet), Polygreen (ultrasonic), Aeroneb Pro (actively vibrating-mesh) and Omron MicroAir NE-U22 (passively vibrating-mesh) nebulisers was investigated. The performance of the Pari nebuliser was independent of latex spheres particle size. For both Polygreen and Aeroneb Pro nebulizers, total aerosol output increased when the size of latex spheres increased, with highest fine particle fraction (FPF) values being recorded. However, following nebulisation of 1 or 4.5 μm suspensions with the Polygreen device, no particles were detected in the aerosols deposited in a two-stage impinger, suggesting that the aerosols generated from this device consisted mainly of the continuous phase while the dispersed microspheres were excluded and remained in the nebuliser. The Omron nebuliser efficiently nebulised the 1 μm latex spheres, with high output rate and no particle aggregation. However, this device functioned inefficiently when delivering 4.5 or 10 μm suspensions, which was attributed to the mild vibrations of its mesh and/or the blockage of the mesh apertures by the microspheres. The Aeroneb Pro fragmented latex spheres into smaller particles, but uncontrolled aggregation occurred upon nebulisation. This study has shown that the design of the nebuliser influenced the aerosol properties using latex spheres as model suspensions. Moreover, for the recently marketed mesh nebulisers, the performance of the Aeroneb Pro device was less dependent on particle size of the suspension compared with the Omron MicroAir nebuliser. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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