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Colak Y.B.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Yazar A.,Cukurova University | Sesveren S.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University | Colak I.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2017

This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of various irrigation regimes applied with subsurface and surface drip systems on yield, quality and midday leaf water potential (LWP) on eggplant in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. The field experiments were carried out during the growing seasons of 2013–2014, in the experimental fields of Soil and Water Resources Research Unit in Tarsus. In the study, two irrigation systems namely surface drip (DI) and subsurface drip systems (SDI); two irrigation intervals (IF3: 3-day; IF6: 6-day) and four irrigation regimes (Full irrigation, FI; deficit irrigations, DI-50; DI-75); and Partial Root-zone Drying PRD-50, which received, respectively 50, 75, and 50% of FI were tested in split-split plot design with four replications. Leaf water potential were measured throughout the growing season with a pressure chamber. Irrigation methods, irrigation intervals and irrigation levels resulted in significantly different yields. Surface drip performed slightly better than the subsurface drip considering yield and quality of eggplants. The highest yield values were obtained from the full irrigation treatments DI IF3FI and SDI IF3FI with 3-day interval. In both trial years PRD-50 treatment in subsurface drip with 6-day interval plots resulted in the lowest yield. The highest water use efficiency (WUE) was found in subsurface drip 6-day interval deficit irrigation (SDI IF6 DI-50) (21.9 and 24.5 kg m−3 in 2013 and 2014) and the lowest in subsurface drip 6-day interval PRD-50 (SDIIF6 PRD50) (12.2 and 16.6 kg m−3). LWP values in the surface drip irrigation treatments ranged between −1.11 and −1.55 MPa in 2013, and ranged between −0.98 and −1.48 MPa in the 2014 growing season. In subsurface drip irrigation treatments LWP values ranged between −1.0 and −1.51 MPa in 2013 and ranged between −0.91 and −1.43 MPa in the 2014. The LWP values decreased with increasing water stress. A significant linear relationship between LWP and yield was obtained. The results revealed that eggplant should be irrigated at LWP values between −0.95 and −1.05 MPa (−9.5 ile −10.5 bar) for high and good quality yields. Thus, LWP can be used for irrigation scheduling for eggplant. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Yildiz M.,Yuzuncu Yil University | Ekbic E.,Adiyaman University | Keles D.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Sensoy S.,Yuzuncu Yil University | Abak K.,European University of Lefke
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The genetic relationships among 63 melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes collected from various regions of Turkey were determined by comparing their molecular ISSR, SRAP, and RAPD markers with those of 19 foreign melon genotypes to investigate the taxonomic relationships and genetic variation of Turkish melon germplasm. Total 162 polymorphic markers (69, 18, and 75 obtained from ISSR, SRAP, and RAPD primers, respectively) were used to define the genetic similarity among the melon genotypes by dendrogram or two and three dimensional scalings. The average similarity (SM coefficient) between any two pairs of accessions examined as estimated by molecular variation was 0.73 ± 0.48. Within-group genetic similarities ranged between 0.46 and 0.96. Related genotypes or genotypes collected from similar regions were partitioned to similar clusters. Southeastern Anatolian genotypes were distinctly apart from group inodorus and group cantalupensis (sweet) genotypes. This reinforced the position of Turkey in the secondary genetic diversity center of melon. The genetic diversity among Turkish genotypes (H= 0.28 and I= 0.42) was only a little less than that of the world accessions (H= 0.30 and I= 0.45). On the other hand, the percentage of polymorphic loci among Turkish melon genotypes (90.7%) was even higher than that of the world accessions (87.6%). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Sezen S.M.,Tarsus Research Institute | Celikel G.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Yazar A.,Cukurova University | Tekin S.,Cukurova University | Kapur B.,Cukurova University
Scientific Research and Essays | Year: 2010

Global warming and resulting drought is the most important constraint affecting plant production in the Mediterranean Region. Therefore, effective management of scarce water resources is of paramount importance in this region. This research was conducted to determine the optimal irrigation strategy for drip irrigated fresh market tomato grown in different soilless culture in a glasshouse in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Volcanic ash, peat and their mixture were used as growth media. Four different irrigation levels (WL1=75%; WL2=100%; WL3=125% and WL4=150% of Class A Pan evaporation) and two watering frequencies (once and twice daily applications) were evaluated. Highest yield and fruit number were obtained from the ash+peat mixture (1:1) with twice a day watering at WL4 irrigation level. Soluble solids of tomato fruit decreased with increasing available water. The highest irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) value of 121.4 kg m-3 was obtained from once a day irrigation WL1 irrigation level with peat+ash (1:1). IWUE decreased in all treatments as the amount of irrigation water increased. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Uzun A.,Erciyes University | Gulsen O.,Erciyes University | Seday U.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Bircan M.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Yilmaz K.U.,Erciyes University
Romanian Biotechnological Letters | Year: 2010

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is an important fruit species in Turkey with high level of economic value. Sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used for the first time to determine genetic diversity and relationships among Turkish and some foreign apricot cultivars. A total 87 bands were obtained from SRAP analysis and 63 of them (73%) were polymorphic. Similarity values among the apricot cultivars were found to be between 0.77 and 0.97. Considerable genetic diversity was determined within and between Turkish and foreign apricot cultivars. Four high chilling requiring cultivars (Levent, Aprikoz, Cologlu and 'İsmailaga) originated from Eastern Turkey clustered apart from the others. There was no clear grouping between European, South African, North American and other Turkish cultivars. Therefore it can be suggested that these cultivars, despite their different geographic origins, have similar genetic background. © 2010 University of Bucharest.


Gulsen O.,Erciyes University | Uzun A.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Canan I.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Seday U.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Canihos E.,Plant Protection Research Institute
Euphytica | Year: 2010

Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), simple sequence repeats (SSR), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), peroxidase gene polymorphism (POGP), resistant gene analog (RGA), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and a morphological marker, Alternaria brown spot resistance gene of citrus named as Cabsr caused by (Alternaria alternata f. sp. Citri) were used to establish genetic linkage map of citrus using a population of 164 F1 individuals derived between 'Clementine' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco 'Clementine) and 'Orlando' tangelo' (C. paradisi Macf. 'Duncan' × C. reticulata Blanco 'Dancy'). A total of 609 markers, including 385 SRAP, 97 RAPD, 95 SSR, 18 ISSR, 12 POGP, and 2 RGA markers were used in linkage analysis. The 'Clementine' linkage map has 215 markers, comprising 144 testcross and 71 intercross markers placed in nine linkage groups. The 'Clementine' linkage map covered 858 cM with and average map distance of 3.5 cM between adjacent markers. The 'Orlando' linkage map has 189 markers, comprising 126 testcross and 61 intercross markers placed in nine linkage groups. The 'Orlando' linkage map covered 886 cM with an average map distance of 3.9 cM between adjacent markers. Segregation ratios for Cabsr were not significantly different from 1:1, suggesting that this trait is controlled by a single locus. This locus was placed in 'Orlando' linkage group 1. The new map has an improved distribution of markers along the linkage groups with fewer gaps. Combining different marker systems in linkage mapping studies may give better genome coverage due to their chromosomal target site differences, therefore fewer gaps in linkage groups. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Ozguven A.I.,Cukurova University | Yilmaz C.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Keles D.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The pomegranate, native to Persia, had its first domestication in Iran about 2000 BC. The name, pomegranate, owes its origin to Latin; "pome" meaning apple, and "granate" meaning many seeded and it was, initially called Malum granatum, meaning seeded apple. From the place of its origin, the pomegranate spread to nearby areas, such as the Mediterranean and subsequently reached eastern countries like India and China. Presently, it is cultivated in India, Iran, Turkey, China, Spain, USA, Morocco, Egypt, Israel, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Greece, Azerbaijan, Yemen, Jordan, Portugal, Cyprus, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Argentina, northern parts of Chile, and to a lesser extent, in Burma, and Japan. It is thought as exotic fruit in European countries, as paradise fruit in Arabic countries. Generally, the fruit is used for eating fresh and decorative purposes. Extracted juice is used to a limited extent for grenadine and pomegranate wine, as well as a delicious, highly-coloured jelly. The fruit will keep many weeks at room temperature and longer in cold storage. The rind shrinks and becomes thinner and tougher in storage, improving the eating quality. Also, it is very important fruit in terms of human health. The family Punicaceae contains a single genus Punica L. of two species, Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) and Punica protopunica Balf.f., syn. Socotria protopunica. Wild pomegranates are found in the Near-East Transcaucasia, Dagestan, Central Asia (Kopet-Dag, Pamiro-Alaj) and also in Asia Minor, Iran and Afghanistan. In the Kopet-Dag wild forms show a wide range of variation probably still untouched by breeders. The cultivation of the pomegranate is mainly confined to tropics and subtropics and it grows well in arid and semi-arid climates. Favorable growth takes place where winters are cool and summers are hot. It is evergreen in the tropics and deciduous in the subtropics. It has the ability to withstand frosty conditions, but below -12°C the hardiness is poor. A temperature of 38°C and dry climate during fruit development produce best quality fruits. Areas with high relative humidity or rain are totally unsuitable for its cultivation as fruits produced under such conditions tend to taste less sweet.


Kurt S.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Buyukalaca S.,Cukurova University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were studied for their ability to produce laccase and carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) enzymes on different agricultural wastes under solid state fermentation. The spawns of P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju were inoculated on different agricultural wastes including viticulture wastes, wheat straw, paddy straw, sesame straw, sawdust as well as the mixtures of these wastes with wheat bran. The carbon and nitrogen contents of substrates containing bran were the highest. The laccase activities of P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju reached the highest values on the day 10 of mycelial growth. This enzyme activity was higher on the substrates containing bran which had high nitrogen and low C/N ratio than the other tested substrates with no bran. The CMCase activities of P. sajor-caju and P. ostreatus had two peaks on the 5th day of mycelial growth and after first flash. P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju grown on substrates containing wheat bran had higher biological efficiencies and total yields as well as higher CMCase and laccase activities. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gulsen O.,Erciyes University | Kaymak S.,Egirdir Horticultural Research Institute | Ozongun S.,Egirdir Horticultural Research Institute | Uzun A.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Plant peroxidases belong to a multigene family and posses highly conserved domains allowing to design oligonucleotide primers to amplify DNA sequences coding for peroxidases from plants with unsequenced genomes. Peroxidase gene-based polymorphism among Malus species, and correlation between peroxidase markers were deduced in this study. Turkish apple germplasm was evaluated using 14 peroxidase specific primers. Targeted-PCR amplification of genomic DNA from 192 apple genotypes available in the Turkish genetic resources yielded polymorphisms giving a similarity range from 0.56 to 0.98 with a mean of 0.77. Based on the POGP gene polymorphism, two distinct clusters were detected among the apple accessions, suggesting different evolutionary pathway. Correlation estimates as an indication of linkage disequilibrium between POGP markers ranged from -0.22 to 0.90, suggesting that few POGP markers were clustered and the remaining POGP markers evenly distributed throughout the apple genome. These results demonstrate that primers targeting the peroxidase gene family can be used to study genotypic diversity and evolutionary relationships on an intra- and inter-specific basis. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Uzun A.,Erciyes University | Seday U.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Turkay C.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), one of the firstly harvested fruit in spring is important fruit for Turkey and other Mediterranean countries because it can be supplied to market during shortage of fresh fruit. Genetic diversity within the loquats comes from seeds obtained from open pollinated trees or budspots which occur very often within the genus. The objectives of this study were to determine variations for some fruit quality characters and genetic markers among 10 foreign cultivars, 3 selected local cultivars and two change seedlings. For fruit weight the largest cultivar was 'Kanro' with 46.2 g. Concordantly with its large fruits the highest fruit length and width also were measured in 'Kanro'. Seed number of accessions studied varied between 1.22 and 3.17. The highest flesh ratio was obtained from 'Baffico' (90%) whereas 'Seedling 1' had the lowest flesh ratio (75%). There were high level of variation for total soluble solids (TSS) and acidity of accessions studied. Total soluble solids (TSS) of cultivars were determined between 14.0 and 9.9%, acidity varied between 0.39 and 1.99%. Molecular analysis, as assessed with 21 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers indicated that all of accessions were distinguished. Using unweighted pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis of RAPD data detected that similarity values among the loquats were between 0.69 and 0.92. In the dendrogram the accessions nested in two main groups. First group consisted of 'Hafif Cukurgobek', 'Uzun Cukurgobek', 'Tanaka' and 'Sayda' whereas rest of 11 accessions nested in other group. Wide range of genetic diversity was determined in loquat accessions and it considered as advantage for breeding programs.


Frary A.,Izmir Institute of Technology | Gol D.,Izmir Institute of Technology | Keles D.,Alata Horticultural Research Institute | Okmen B.,Izmir Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2010

Background: Excessive soil salinity is an important problem for agriculture, however, salt tolerance is a complex trait that is not easily bred into plants. Exposure of cultivated tomato to salt stress has been reported to result in increased antioxidant content and activity. Salt tolerance of the related wild species, Solanum pennellii, has also been associated with similar changes in antioxidants. In this work, S. lycopersicum M82, S. pennellii LA716 and a S. pennellii introgression line (IL) population were evaluated for growth and their levels of antioxidant activity (total water-soluble antioxidant activity), major antioxidant compounds (phenolic and flavonoid contents) and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase) under both control and salt stress (150 mM NaCl) conditions. These data were then used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for controlling the antioxidant parameters under both stress and nonstress conditions.Results: Under control conditions, cultivated tomato had higher levels of all antioxidants (except superoxide dismutase) than S. pennellii. However, under salt stress, the wild species showed greater induction of all antioxidants except peroxidase. The ILs showed diverse responses to salinity and proved very useful for the identification of QTL. Thus, 125 loci for antioxidant content under control and salt conditions were detected. Eleven of the total antioxidant activity and phenolic content QTL matched loci identified in an independent study using the same population, thereby reinforcing the validity of the loci. In addition, the growth responses of the ILs were evaluated to identify lines with favorable growth and antioxidant profiles.Conclusions: Plants have a complex antioxidant response when placed under salt stress. Some loci control antioxidant content under all conditions while others are responsible for antioxidant content only under saline or nonsaline conditions. The localization of QTL for these traits and the identification of lines with specific antioxidant and growth responses may be useful for breeding potentially salt tolerant tomato cultivars having higher antioxidant levels under nonstress and salt stress conditions. © 2010 Frary et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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