Bouake, Ivory Coast

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Effi A.B.,Alassane Ouattara University | Aman N.A.,Alassane Ouattara University | Koui B.S.,Treichville Teaching Hospital | Koffi K.D.,Alassane Ouattara University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2017

Background: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous and a hormone-dependent disease. The detection of the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) is crucial for prognostic evaluation and treatment choice of breast cancer for clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of the hormonal receptors, their distribution, and their correlation with clinicopathologic prognostic parameters for the improvement of the patients' treatment in Ivory Coast. Methods: The 20-month prospective study included 302 patients who were diagnosed with primary invasive breast carcinomas at the Central Laboratory in Abidjan. The paraffin-embedded blocks of these patients were examined by immunohistochemistry to assess the ER and PgR status. The one-way analysis of variance and Chi-Square Test were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 48 ± 11 years. The majority of the women were premenopausal in 180 cases (59.9%). The predominant histologic type was invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (IDC NOS) in 247 cases (82%). Tumor grade 2 was more frequent in 166 cases (55%). Among 302 patients, 169 (56%) and 154 (49%) expressed ER and PgR respectively. The ER+PgR+ group with 131 cases (43%) was predominant, followed by 116 cases (38%) of ER-PgR-. The expression of ER and PgR was correlated with the age of the patients (p = 0.026) and the tumor grade (p = 0.0004). However, there was not statistically significant correlation between ER/PgR and the menopausal status of patients (p = 0.149), nor between ER/PgR and the histologic type (p = 0.523). Conclusion: The ER+PgR+ and ER-PgR- are the most common subgroups in women with breast cancer in Ivory Coast. The hormonal receptor status is associated with the age and the histologic grade in breast cancer patients. The systematic use of hormonal treatment should be reevaluated. A further study should be done to investigate the reasons of high rate of ER-PgR- in breast cancer patients in Ivory Coast. © 2017 The Author(s).

PubMed | Charité - Medical University of Berlin, Robert Koch Institute, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, 3 Lanada Laboratoire Central Of Pathologie Animale and Alassane Ouattara University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Viral immunology | Year: 2017

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus that can be pathogenic to humans. In particular, immunocompromised patients can develop life-threatening symptoms. In the present study, HCMV seroprevalence was investigated in a rural population of Western Cte dIvoire. Plasma samples collected from 166 apparently healthy subjects living in 8 villages surrounding the Ta Forest National Park were tested for anti-HCMV immunoglobulin G and M antibody with two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Prevalence of anti-HCMV IgG and IgM antibody was 100% and 5.4%, respectively. Anti-HCMV IgM positive was 10.2% (5/49) of the children and adolescents and 3.4% (4/117) of the adults. This observed decrease of IgM seropositivity and the seroprevalence difference between males and females (3.8% vs. 6.1%) was not statistically significant. In plasma of one IgM-positive participant, a low CMV load was detected indicating low-level replication. A second IgM-positive participant showed signs of local CMV replication. The other seven IgM-positive plasma samples likely reacted nonspecifically or due to polyclonal stimulation. Taken together, the results indicate that HCMV infection is hyperendemic in Cte dIvoire.

PubMed | Jean Lorougnon Guédé University, University of Hamburg, Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology, University Of Cocody and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of affective disorders | Year: 2016

Little is known about the course of perinatal anxiety, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study aimed at examining trajectories of ante- and postpartum generalized anxiety symptoms in West-African women and their associations with mother and child characteristics.778 women from Cte dIvoire and Ghana were investigated between 04/2010 and 03/2014. Anxiety symptoms were measured using the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) at three months antepartum and three, 12 and 24 months postpartum. Growth mixture modeling was applied to identify latent trajectory classes of anxiety. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate the associations of psychosocial, sociodemographic, obstetric and clinical characteristics with different trajectories.Four distinct trajectories of anxiety were identified. The majority of women (79.8%) had consistent low anxiety symptoms, while 11.4% had elevated anxiety scores before and around childbirth that decreased gradually. 5.4% of women showed increasing anxiety symptoms over time. Few women (3.3%) had transient anxiety with elevated scores at three and 12 months postpartum. Risk factors for elevated anxiety levels around childbirth were antepartum depressive symptoms, higher levels of stress (economic, marital and social stress), lower child birth weight, and multiparity. Partner support was found to be protective.Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a screening instrument and not through a formal diagnostic classification system. Some putative risk factors were not investigated, and some psychosocial factors were assessed retrospectively.The presence of different trajectories underline the importance of monitoring anxiety symptoms in pregnant women and in mothers with infants/toddlers.

PubMed | Programmes National de Lutte contre lOnchocercoses et les autres Maladies Tropicales Negligees, Noguchi Institute, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Filariasis Programme Support Unit and Alassane Ouattara University
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2016

Over the past 15 years, mortality and morbidity due to malaria have been reduced substantially in sub-Saharan Africa and local elimination has been achieved in some settings. This study addresses the bio-ecology of larval and adult stages of malaria vectors, Plasmodium infection in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in the city of Conakry, Guinea, and discusses the prospect for malaria elimination.Water bodies were prospected to identify potential mosquito breeding sites for 6 days each in the dry season (January 2013) and in the rainy season (August 2013), using the dipping method. Adult mosquitoes were collected in 15 communities in the five districts of Conakry using exit traps and indoor spraying catches over a 1-year period (November 2012 to October 2013). Molecular approaches were employed for identification of Anopheles species, including An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. Individual An. gambiae mosquitoes were tested for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax sporozoites using the VecTest malaria panel assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A systematic research of Ministry of Health statistical yearbooks was performed to determine malaria prevalence in children below the age of 5 years.Culex larval breeding sites were observed in large numbers throughout Conakry in both seasons. While Anopheles larval breeding sites were less frequent than Culex breeding sites, there was a high odds of finding An. gambiae mosquito larvae in agricultural sites during the rainy season. Over the 1-year study period, a total of 14,334 adult mosquitoes were collected; 14,135 Culex (98.6%) and 161 (1.1%) from the An. gambiae complex. One-hundred and twelve Anopheles mosquitoes, mainly collected from rice fields and gardens, were subjected to molecular analysis. Most of the mosquitoes were An. gambiae s.s. (n = 102; 91.1%) while the remaining 10 (8.9%) were An. melas. The molecular M form of An. gambiae s.s. was predominant (n = 89; 79.5%). The proportions of kdr genotype in the An. gambiae s.s. M and S form were 65.2 and 81.8% (n = 9), respectively. No sporozoite infection were detected in any of the mosquitoes tested. The prevalence of Plasmodium recorded in children aged below 5 years was relatively low and varied between 2.2 and 7.6% from 2009 to 2012.The low density of larval and adult stages of Anopheles mosquitoes, the absence of infected An. gambiae species and the low prevalence of Plasmodium in under 5-year-old children are important features that might facilitate malaria elimination in Conakry. The heterogeneity in species composition and resistance profiles call for vector control interventions that are tailored to the local bio-ecological setting.

PubMed | Health Science University, Alassane Ouattara University, University of Cocody, Regional Hospital Thies and Cheikh Anta Diop University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Case reports in dermatology | Year: 2016

Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease. This disease predisposes patients to early-onset skin cancers, particularly squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we report 3 pediatric cases, including 2 deaths.The subjects included 2 boys and 1 girl with skin type VI. All subjects were from consanguineous marriages, and the average age was 7.6 years. The patients all had ulcerative budding tumor lesions in the cephalic region, and the mean disease duration was 18 months. In all 3 cases, the diagnosis of xeroderma pigmentosum was made before the poikilodermal appearance of sun-exposed areas and photophobia. Neurological-type mental retardation was noted in 1 case. Histology confirmed squamous cell carcinoma in all 3 cases. The evolutions were marked by the death of 2 children (cases 1 and 3). In one case, the outcome was favorable following cancer excision and subsequent chemotherapy with adjuvant radiotherapy.Squamous cell carcinoma is a serious complication related to xeroderma pigmentosum in Sub-Saharan Africa. Prevention is based on the early diagnosis of xeroderma pigmentosum, black skin photoprotection, screening and early treatment of lesions, and genetic counseling.

PubMed | Service de neurologie medicale, Service des maladies infectieuses et tropicales, Service de pediatrie medicale and Alassane Ouattara University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin de la Societe de pathologie exotique (1990) | Year: 2016

The lack of data on neonatal tetanus and children in university hospitals (UH) in Abidjan for over a decade has motivated the realization of this study. The objective of this study is to evaluate the morbidity and mortality related to neonatal tetanus (NT) and child tetanus (CT) in Abidjan University Hospital from 2001 to 2010. It is a retrospective study, multicenter analysis with records of newborns and children suffering from tetanus in the three UH of Abidjan. The collection and analysis of data were made by the SPHINX 4.5 and EPI.INFO 6.0 software. In ten years, 242 cases of tetanus (53 NT cases and 189 CT cases) were collected with a predominance of cases after the fifth year of life (59.5%). The incidence rate of NT was less than 1 case per 1,000 live births. All mothers of the newborns were inhabiting the city of Abidjan. Their median age was 19 years [16-32] and 64% were teenagers. Gateways were dominated by umbilical wounds (77.3%) in the NTand skin wounds (59%) in CT. The cure rate was 30.2% in the NT and 60% in the CT. Lethality was 60% for NT and 22% for CT with a positive correlation with young age (neonates: p = 4.10-7, age <5 years: p = 0.01), lack of intraspinal injection of tetanus serum (p = 8.10-6), the absence of conventional antibiotic therapy (p = 0.023), the existence of metabolic complications (p = 2.10-5), the score of 4 Dakar (p = 0.005). Tetanus remains a real morbidly cause among children in Abidjan University Hospital with high lethality. However, the incidence of NT seems consistent with the incidence threshold desired by WHO.

Yapi Yapi G.,Alassane Ouattara University | Toure M.,University Jean Lourougnon Guede | Boka O.M.,Alassane Ouattara University | Tia E.,Alassane Ouattara University | Boby O.A.-M.,Alassane Ouattara University
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2014

Intestinal schistosomiasis by Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitary affection transmitted in West Africa by the mollusc Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Transmission dynamic of schistosomiasis by Biomphalaria pfeifferi has seldom been investigated in Côte d’Ivoire. In the framework of a research project on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the natural forest ecosystems, this study was performed longitudinally over a period of three years in Man region, in western Côte d’Ivoire. The trial set up from 1986 to 1989 and the project was funded by the World Health Organization. The general objective is to design a strategy of schistosomiasis control based on chemotherapy. The approach aims at interrupting or considerably reducing the reinfections, prolonging in that way the duration of the positive effects of the chemotherapy. The specific objectives assigned to the work consisted in studying the dynamic of the B. pfeifferi population and the infection of B. pfeifferi. To achieve our objectives, diverse methods (i: the molluscs sampling by two prospectors during 15 minutes per study site and ii: individual isolation of molluscs in test tubes with 5 or 10 mL of filtered water and exposure to light) have been used. They enabled us in the sampling of the intermediary host molluscs of Schistosoma and seek their infections. The results show that apparent high densities of B. pfeifferi can be observed at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of rainy seasons. In addition, the variation of relative abundance of intermediary host molluscs of Schistosoma is significantly influenced by rainfall and the system of water ways. The period of transmission of the infection to man is six months at Gueupleu village and ten months at Botonguiné village. In order to optimize the effect of chemotherapy in these sites of transmission characterized by a high level of endemy (68 %), an extreme mobility of human populations and a multiplicity of contamination sites, this study should not only take into account the geographic space of the illness, but also it should eventually associate with a molluscicide action and/or a sanitary education through the teaching of primary health care. © 2014, Springer-Verlag France.

PubMed | Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, University of Québec and Alassane Ouattara University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer metastasis reviews | Year: 2016

The central role played by calcium ion in biological systems has generated an interest for its potential implication in human malignancies. Thus, lines of research, on possible association of calcium metabolism regulation with tumorigenesis, implying disruptions and/or alterations of known molecular pathways, have been extensively researched in the recent decades. This paper is a critical synthesis of these findings, based on a functional approach of the calcium signaling toolkit. It provides strong support that this ubiquitous divalent cation is involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression. Different pathways have been outlined, involving equally different molecular and cellular structures. However, if the association between calcium and cancer can be described as constant, it is not always linear. We have identified several influencing factors among which the most relevant are (i) the changes in local or tissular concentrations of free calcium and (ii) the histological and physiological types of tissue involved. Such versatility at the molecular level may probably account for the conflicting findings reported by the epidemiological literature on calcium dietary intake and the risk to develop certain cancers such as the prostatic or mammary neoplasms. However, it also fuels the hypothesis that behind each cancer, a specific calcium pathway can be evidenced. Identifying such molecular interactions is probably a promising approach for further understanding and treatment options for the disease.

PubMed | Alassane Ouattara University, Laboratoire National D`Appui Au Developpement Agricole Laboratoire Central Of Pathologie Animale and Robert Koch Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: EcoHealth | Year: 2016

Elevated exposure levels to non-human primates (NHP) and NHP bushmeat represent major risk factors for zoonotic disease transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Demography can affect personal nutritional behavior, and thus rates of contact to NHP bushmeat. Here, we analyzed demographic and NHP contact data from 504 participants of differing demographic backgrounds living in proximity to the Ta National Park in Western Cte dIvoire (CI) to identify factors impacting the risk of NHP exposure. Overall, participants contact rates to NHP were high, and increased along a gradient of bushmeat processing (e.g., 7.7% hunted, but 61.9% consumed monkeys). Contact to monkeys was significantly more frequent than to chimpanzees, most likely a reflection of meat availability and hunting effort. 17.2% of participants reported previous interaction with NHP pets. Generalized linear mixed model analysis revealed significant effects of sex, country of birth or ethnicity on rates of NHP bushmeat contact, with male participants from CI being at particular risk of exposure to NHP. The presence of zoonotic pathogens in humans and NHP in Ta further highlights the risk for zoonotic disease emergence in this region. Our results are relevant for formulating prevention strategies to reduce zoonotic pathogen burden in tropical Africa.

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