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Fairbanks, AK, United States

Gardner T.J.,Office of Workforce and Career Development | Robbins C.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Thomas L.,Alicia Roberts Health Center | Watson C.M.,Craig Public Health Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases

Background. In September 2008, an outbreak of pneumonia associated with an emerging human adenovirus (human adenovirus serotype 14 [HAdV-14]) occurred on a rural Southeast Alaska island. Nine patients required hospitalization, and 1 patient died. Methods. To investigate the outbreak, pneumonia case patients were matched to control participants on the basis of age, sex, and community of residence. Participants in the investigation and their household contacts were interviewed, and serum samples and respiratory tract specimens were collected. Risk factors were evaluated by means of conditional logistic regression. Results. Among 32 pneumonia case patients, 21 (65%) had confirmed or probable HAdV-14 infection. None of 32 matched control participants had evidence of HAdV-14 infection (P<.001 for the difference). Factors independently associated with pneumonia included contact with a known HAdV-14-infected case patient (odds ratio [OR], 18.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, ≥2.0]), current smoking (OR, 6.7 [95% CI, ≥0.9]), and having neither traveled off the island nor attended a large public gathering (OR, 14.7 [95% CI, ≥2.0]). Fourteen (67%) of 21 HAdV-14-positive case patients belonged to a single network of people who socialized and often smoked together and infrequently traveled off the island. HAdV-14 infection occurred in 43% of case-patient household contacts, compared with 5% of control-participant household contacts (P=005) Conclusions. During a community outbreak in Alaska, HAdV-14 appeared to have spread mostly among close contacts and not widely in the community. Demographic characteristics and illness patterns among the case patients were similar to those observed in other recent outbreaks of HAdV-14 infection in the United States. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Source

Parker J.,Alaska State Public Health Virology Laboratory | Parker J.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Fowler N.,Alaska State Public Health Virology Laboratory | Walmsley M.L.,Alaska State Public Health Virology Laboratory | And 7 more authors.

Multiplex PCR methods are attractive to clinical laboratories wanting to broaden their detection of respiratory viral pathogens in clinical specimens. However, multiplexed assays must be well optimized to retain or improve upon the analytic sensitivity of their singleplex counterparts. In this experiment, the lower limit of detection (LOD) of singleplex real-time PCR assays targeting respiratory viruses is compared to an equivalent panel on a multiplex PCR platform, the GenMark eSensor RVP. LODs were measured for each singleplex real-time PCR assay and expressed as the lowest copy number detected 95-100% of the time, depending on the assay. The GenMark eSensor RVP LODs were obtained by converting the TCID50/mL concentrations reported in the package insert to copies/μL using qPCR. Analytical sensitivity between the two methods varied from 1.2-1280.8 copies/μL (0.08-3.11 log differences) for all 12 assays compared. Assays targeting influenza A/H3N2, influenza A/H1N1pdm09, influenza B, and human parainfluenza 1 and 2 were most comparable (1.2-8.4 copies/μL, <1 log difference). Largest differences in LOD were demonstrated for assays targeting adenovirus group E, respiratory syncytial virus subtype A, and a generic assay for all influenza A viruses regardless of subtype (319.4-1280.8 copies/μL, 2.50-3.11 log difference). The multiplex PCR platform, the GenMark eSensor RVP, demonstrated improved analytical sensitivity for detecting influenza A/H3 viruses, influenza B virus, human parainfluenza virus 2, and human rhinovirus (1.6-94.8 copies/μL, 0.20-1.98 logs). Broader detection of influenza A/H3 viruses was demonstrated by the GenMark eSensor RVP. The relationship between TCID50/mL concentrations and the corresponding copy number related to various ATCC cultures is also reported. © 2015 Parker et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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