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Holloman Air Force Base, NM, United States

Bozek K.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Bozek K.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Wei Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wei Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 19 more authors.
PLoS Biology | Year: 2014

Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and mice based on over 10,000 hydrophilic compounds. While chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse metabolomes diverge following the genetic distances among species, we detect remarkable acceleration of metabolome evolution in human prefrontal cortex and skeletal muscle affecting neural and energy metabolism pathways. These metabolic changes could not be attributed to environmental conditions and were confirmed against the expression of their corresponding enzymes. We further conducted muscle strength tests in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The results suggest that, while humans are characterized by superior cognition, their muscular performance might be markedly inferior to that of chimpanzees and macaque monkeys. © 2014 Bozek et al.

Budda M.L.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Ely J.J.,Alamogordo Primate Facility | Doan S.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Chavez-Suarez M.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2013

Baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) of a conventional breeding colony were nursery-reared to create a specific pathogen-free (SPF) baboon-breeding program. Because the founding generations were nursery-reared until 2 years of age, it was suspected that the SPF baboons would exhibit increased reproductive challenges as adults. Mothering behavior was of interest, because SPF females were not exposed to parental role models during the nursery-rearing process. We compared reproductive data from the SPF baboon breeding program during its first 10 years with data from age-matched baboons during the same period from an established, genetically-similar conventional breeding colony. We also evaluated records documenting mother-infant behaviors within the SPF colony. The average age of menarche in SPF females was 3.3 years. The overall live birth rate of both SPF and conventional females was approximately 90%, with no difference in pregnancy outcome between the two colonies. The average age at first conception for SPF females was earlier (4.2 years) than that of the conventional females (4.7 years). In both colonies, primiparous females were more likely to abort than multiparous females. Similarly, primiparous females were more likely to lose their infants to death or human intervention. A mothering score system was developed in the SPF colony to facilitate intervention of poor mother-infant relationships. Records revealed 70% of SPF mothers were able to raise one or more of their infants successfully to at least 180 days of age, which did not differ from conventional mothers. SPF females returned to post-partum amenorrhea 27 days sooner on average than the conventional females, independent of dam age. The nursery-rearing process used for recruitment into the SPF colony therefore did not have an adverse effect on reproduction or rearing offspring. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Bozek K.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Bozek K.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Wei Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yan Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 15 more authors.
Neuron | Year: 2015

Lipids are prominent components of the nervous system. Here we performed a large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis of the lipid composition of three brain regions as well as kidney and skeletal muscle of humans, chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, and mice. The human brain shows the most distinct lipid composition: 76% of 5,713 lipid compounds examined in our study are either enriched or depleted in the human brain. Concentration levels of lipids enriched in the brain evolve approximately four times faster among primates compared with lipids characteristic of non-neural tissues and show further acceleration of change in human neocortical regions but not in the cerebellum. Human-specific concentration changes are supported by human-specific expression changes for corresponding enzymes. These results provide the first insights into the role of lipids in human brain evolution. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Videan E.N.,Alamogordo Primate Facility | Videan E.N.,University of Michigan | Satterfield W.C.,Michale eling Center For Comparative Medicine And Research | Buchl S.,Michale eling Center For Comparative Medicine And Research | Lammey M.L.,Alamogordo Primate Facility
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

Uterine leiomyomata are common, affecting 70-80% of women between 30 and 50 years of age. Leiomyomata have been reported for a variety of primate species, although prevalence rates and treatments have not been widely reported. The prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of uterine leiomyomata in the Alamogordo Primate Facility and the Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research were examined. Uterine leiomyomata were diagnosed in 28.4% of chimpanzees with an average age at diagnosis of 30.4±8.0 years. Advanced age (>30 years) was related to an increase in leiomyomata and use of hormonal contraception was related to a decrease in leiomyomata. As the captive chimpanzee population ages, the incidence of leiomyomata among female chimpanzees will likely increase. The introduction of progesterone-based contraception for nonbreeding research and zoological chimpanzees may reduce the development of leiomyomata. Finally, all chimpanzee facilities should institute aggressive screening programs and carefully consider treatment plans. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Nunamaker E.A.,Purdue University | Nunamaker E.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lee D.R.,Alamogordo Primate Facility | Lee D.R.,Washington Regional Primate Center | Lammey M.L.,Alamogordo Primate Facility
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2012

The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpanzees. Here we characterize the types and prevalence of chronic disease seen in geriatric (older than 35 y) female chimpanzees in the colony at Alamogordo Primate Facility. Of the 16 female chimpanzees that fit the age category, 87.5% had some form of chronic age-related disease. Cardiovascular-related disease was the most common (81.25%) followed by metabolic syndrome (43.75%) and renal disease (31.25%). These data show the incidence of disease in geriatric female chimpanzees and predict likely medical management challenges associated with maintaining an aging chimpanzee population. Copyright 2012 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

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