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San Leandro, CA, United States

Krishnan M.,Alameda Applied Science Corporation
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science | Year: 2012

The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a Z-pinch that has been studied for 50 years. Within ten years of its discovery by Fillipov and Fillipova in Russia and Mather in the USA, this dense pinch was scaled up to 2-MA currents and neutron outputs of ∼1012. More remarkable is the fact that most of the relevant physics and scaling laws were elucidated within this first decade. The subsequent period has seen this type of pinch used as a teaching tool, developed as a portable neutron source for security applications, as a soft X-ray source for lithography, and as an energetic ion source for nanofabrication applications. This review builds upon several prior reviews. From the plasma physics standpoint, DPF physics is examined in light of fast Z-pinches to examine the similarities. More cross-fertilization between the two communities is suggested as a means to improve both types of pinches. From the applications standpoint, the many uses of DPFs are summarized to demonstrate the versatility of these pinches. Their ease of assembly and relatively low voltage operation have allowed DPFs to be disseminated worldwide as fusion testbeds (unlike their fast Z-pinch counterparts). Smaller or less economically developed nations have made valuable contributions to our understanding of the physics, as evidenced by the rich lode of publications that have advanced the field. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2014

Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPAs) could one day replace larger radio-frequency accelerators in medicine and industry. This proposal aims to deliver a key component of such LPAs: a dual- nozzle, tailored gas jet. Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) proposes to develop a dual-nozzle gas jet suitable for LPAs. Initial variants include a dual-nozzle jet for the short pulsed Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab as well as a dual-nozzle jet for the longer pulsed Texas Petawatt laser at the Univ. of Texas Austin. Later we will scale these nozzles to higher density as required for CO2 laser interactions. The challenge and innovation in this project is to deliver to the LPA community a window-less and wall-free gas target that allows tailored density profiles. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: LPAs have the potential to substantially reduce the costs of a particle accelerator. By developing an enabling technology, AASC can add flagpole IP to its existing patent and license it to medical accelerator providers such as Varian Medical Systems.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2014

Superconducting Radiofrequency Accelerators require a critical component that connects the radiofrequency power supply that is warm, to the accelerator cavity that is very cold. Making this coupler insulating on the outside, so that it blocks heat from going into the cold region while making it highly conducting on the inside, to minimize radiofrequency power losses, is not easy. Existing methods do not work well enough to satisfy the requirements of large new accelerators that need thousands of these couplers. A better solution is needed. Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) has demonstrated thin films of copper coated onto stainless steel that could meet the conflicting requirements of the RF coupler: stainless steel block heat on the outside while copper conducts RF power efficiently on the inside. In this project we will improve upon our coating solution by using an innovative particle filter that improves the copper coating, allowing it to stick better to the stainless steel. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: Various governments alone are expected to invest $1B over the next decade or so into superconducting accelerators. Private sector investment would match or exceed that with breakthroughs as noted above. About 20% of this investment would go to purchase of RF couplers so represents a good commercial opportunity. AASC would license its knowhow and patents to larger companies so as to have an impact on this opportunity.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 750.00K | Year: 2011

ABSTRACT: Future Department of Defense space missions require precise, fine-positioning capabilities combined with large maneuvrability requirements. The purpose of this STTR is to: a) identify propellants for electrospray propulsion able to cover, at high propulsion efficiency, an unusually wide range of specific impulses, from several hundred seconds, typical today of colloidal propulsion up to values of thousands of seconds, typical today of only purely ionic propulsion; and b) meet thrust requirements by microfabricated multiplexed electrosprays. The challenge will be met with a fixed thruster and propellant. No electrostatic ion thruster based on ions of fixed mass/charge is suitable to span such a wide specific impulse range at high propulsion efficiency and full power. Electrospray propulsion, on the other hand, has this useful characteristic, since it admits a wide range of mass/charge values at relatively constant beam power. One can therefore use the full power available over the whole range of specific impulse with a single propellant. This STTR collaboration aims to validate this exciting new approach to micro-electric propulsion for military and civilian nano-satellite applications, capitalizing on the unique combination of expertise of the Yale-AASC team. BENEFIT: This project will develop innovative, on orbit propulsion methods that provide variable high thrust and high specific impulse at high efficiency, and enable system orbit agility or new orbit regimes. The high efficiency over an unprecedented range of specific impulse makes the electrospray micro-thruster a key enabling technology for all future nano-satellites.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2014

Superconducting radiofrequency accelerators require a critical component that connects the radiofrequency power supply (which is warm) to the accelerator cavity (which is very cold). This coupler component must be insulating on the outside to block heat from going into the cold region. It must also be highly conducting on the inside to minimize radiofrequency power losses. No manufacturer has been able to strike a satisfactory balance. Existing methods do not work well enough to satisfy the requirements of the large new accelerators that need to order thousands of these couplers. AASC has validated a better solution in Ph-I. Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC) has demonstrated thin films of copper coated onto stainless steel that could meet the conflicting requirements of the RF coupler. Stainless steel blocks heat on the outside while copper conducts RF power efficiently on the inside. Our Ph-I coatings passed a high pressure water rinse test at Fermi Lab. The electrical conductivity of the film is characterized by a parameter called RRR that must exceed 30. Our Ph-I films gave RRR=42-64, in excess of requirements. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: Various governments are expected to invest $1B into superconducting accelerators over the next decade or so. Private sector investment would match or exceed that with breakthroughs as noted above. About 20% of this investment would go to the purchase of RF couplers. This represents a great commercial opportunity. AASC will license its knowhow and patents to larger companies to capitalize on this opportunity.

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