Alamata Agricultural Research Center

Alamata, Ethiopia

Alamata Agricultural Research Center

Alamata, Ethiopia
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Welde K.,Alamata Agricultural Research Center | Gebremariam B.,Arbaminch University
International Soil and Water Conservation Research | Year: 2017

Land use change is a very important issue considering global dynamics and their response to hydrologic characteristics of soil and water management in a catchment. A significant land use change has been observed in the Tekeze dam catchment. The main objective of this study was to estimate the potential impacts of the land use land cover (LULC) dynamics on hydrological response (stream flow and sediment yield). This was done by integrating SWAT model with GIS. The simulation and sensitivity analysis for each land use was done by dividing the catchment in to 47 sub-catchments and assigning HRUs based on multiple HRU definition. After a sensitivity analysis, calibration and validation of SWAT model, the impact of LULC dynamics on hydrological response were evaluated with three scenarios (climate of 2000s & 2008 LULC, climate of 2000s & 1986 LULC and climate of 1980s & 1986 LULC). In the Tekeze dam watershed, land cover change had a beneficial impact on modeled watershed response due to the transition from grass and shrub land to agricultural land. Simulation results for the Tekeze dam watershed indicates that increasing bare land and agricultural areas resulted in increased annual and seasonal stream flow and sediment yield in volumes. The mean annual stream flow was increased by 6.02% (129.20–137.74 m3/s) and the impact on sediment yield amounts to an increase of 17.39% (12.54–15.18 t/ha/yr) due to LULC dynamics. The hydrological response was more sensitive to LULC dynamics for the months of August to October than others in the year. These results demonstrate the usefulness of integrating remote sensing and distributed hydrologic models through the use of GIS for assessing watershed conditions and the relative impacts of land cover transitions on hydrologic response in a continuous manner. © 2017 International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation and China Water and Power Press

Welde K.,Alamata Agricultural Research Center
International Soil and Water Conservation Research | Year: 2016

Sedimentation and/or soil erosion are huge problems that have threatened many reservoirs in the Northern Ethiopian highlands, particularly in the Tekeze dam watershed. This study has been conducted to identify and prioritize the most sensitive subwatersheds with the help of a semi-distributed watershed model (SWAT 2009) for improved management of reservoir sedimentation mitigating strategies at the watershed level. SWAT 2009 was chosen for this study due to its ability to produce routed sediment yield and identify principal sediment source areas at the selected point of interest. Based on a digital elevation model (DEM) the catchment was divided in to 47 subwatersheds using the dam axis as the main outlet. By overlaying land use, soil and slope of the study area, the subwatersheds were further divided in to 690 hydrological response units (HRUs). Model calibration (for the period of January 1996 to December 2002) and validation (for the period of January 2003 to December 2006) were carried out for stream flow rate and sediment yield data observed at Emba madre gage station. The results of model performance evaluation statistics for both stream flow and sediment yield shows that the model has a high potential in estimation of stream flow and sediment yield. Tekeze dam watershed has mean annual stream flow of 137.74 m3/s and annual sediment yield of 15.17 t/ha/year. Out of the 47 subwatersheds, 13 subwatersheds (mostly located in the north eastern and north western part of the catchment) were prioritized. The maximum sediment outflow of these 13 subwatersheds, ranges from 18.49 to 32.57 t/ha/year and are characterized dominantly by cultivated land, shrub land & bare land with average land slope ranging from 7.9 to15.2% and with the dominant soil type of Eutric cambisols. These results can help to formulate and implement effective, appropriate and sustainable watershed management which in turn can help in sustaining the reservoir storage capacity of the dam. © 2016 International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation and China Water and Power Press

Teklue T.,Jimma University | Teklue T.,Alamata Agricultural Research Center | Tolosa T.,Jimma University | Tolosa T.,Ghent University | And 5 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2013

This study reports a prevalence and risk factor survey of brucellosis in small ruminants in Southern Zone of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia between October 2011 and April 2012 to determine the sero-prevalence of small-ruminant brucellosis and to identify associated risk factors for the occurrence of disease in small ruminants under extensive production system. Multistage random sampling was followed to select locations, flocks, and individual animals. Laboratory analysis of serum samples provided sero-prevalence estimates for flocks and geographic location. Information on risk factors at the individual and flock level was obtained by examination of individual animal and a questionnaire interview to flock owners. The overall individual animal-level sero-prevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants was 3.5 % and flock level sero-prevalence was 28.3 %, and the within-flock sero-prevalence was ranged from 0 % to 22.2 % based on the Complement Fixation Test. Multivariable logistic regression showed that the major risk factors for flock level sero-positivity were flock size and abortion history. This study showed that small-ruminant brucellosis is prevalent in the study area. Larger flock size and history of previous abortion in the flock were major risk factors identified for sero-positivity of small-ruminant brucellosis. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Hailu B.,Jimma University | Hailu B.,Semera University | Tolosa T.,Jimma University | Tolosa T.,Ghent University | And 5 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is one of the major livestock disease problems in most areas of Ethiopia. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2011 to February 2012 in four selected districts of Afar and Tigray regions to estimate the herd-level prevalence of LSD, and to assess its associated risk factors. Herd-owners were selected based on the willingness to provide information to complete the questionnaire. A total of 393 questionnaires were collected. Out of 393 herd-owners, 173 reported having LSD in their herds, giving an estimated herd- and animal-level prevalence of (44%, 95% CI: 37-50%) and (7.4%, 95% CI: 6-8%), respectively. Herd prevalence between regions and among the districts were significantly different (χ2=8, P<0.01 and χ2=9.9, P<0.01), respectively. The risk factors of LSD occurrence were introduction of a new animal to the herd, herd size, and utilization of communal grazing and watering points. These management characteristics cannot be readily changed in the studied area, hence, disease control should rely on a greater use of effective LSD vaccines. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Welde K.,Alamata Agricultural Research Center | Gebremariam H.L.,Alamata Agricultural Research Center
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2016

In southern zone of Tigray, Ethiopia, there is a large competition between maize production and other horticultural crops for the limited irrigation water. Hence, there is an imminent need to improve the water use efficiency or more importantly the water productivity of the area. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of furrow and plant spacing and their interaction on yield and water use efficiency of maize. Experimental treatments include three levels furrow spacing (50, 70 and 90 cm) and three levels of plant spacing (20, 25 and 30 cm) were arranged in factorial RCBD design under three replications. Maize (BH543 variety) was used in this study in which all agronomic practices were treated equally including the amount of water applied. Maize water requirement was estimated using CROPWAT 8 software. The result revealed that there was significant difference among the treatments (p < 0.05) for grain yield, biomass yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). But it was not significantly different for the yield components (plant height and number of cobs per plant). Maximum grain yield (56.26 qt/ha) and IWUE (0.876 kg/m3) were obtained from 50 cm furrow and 30 cm plant spacing interaction. But maximum biomass yield (250.6 qt/ha) was obtained from 50 cm furrow and 20 cm plant spacing interaction. The IWUE ranges from 0.357 kg/m3 to 0.876 kg/m3 for the equal amount of irrigation water applied (642 mm) for each treatment. This shows how much IWUE of small scale farmers can vary as their agronomic practice (plant and furrow spacing) is different from one another. Hence, it can be concluded that irrigation agronomist experts and development agents of the study area must create awareness to the small scale farmers to exercise 50 cm furrow spacing with 30 cm plant spacing to improve and increase the water productivity of maize. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Atsbha T.,Alamata Agricultural Research center | Estifanos A.,Mekelle Agricultural Research Center | Wayu S.,Alamata Agricultural Research center | Tesfay T.,Alamata Agricultural Research center | Baraki A.,Alamata Agricultural Research center
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

The experiment was undertaken at Emba Alaje District, Ayba Peasant Association (PA) for two consecutive years, which is 2013 to 2014, to evaluate forage yield of the natural pasture through application of urea and slurry and third control one. A factorial RCBD design replicated three times with two factors and three levels were used. Each treatment was allocated to 25m2 in both years. Partial budget analysis, dominance analysis and marginal rate of return were calculated to compare treatments economic benefits. Seven grasses, five annual legumes and two other herbaceous species belonging to different families were identified in all the plots. Dry matter yield (DMY) significantly increased by application of urea over the application of slurry and the control. The relative proportion of grass, and legumes reached highest and significant by urea application. The effect of years was also only significantly varied for DMY. The interaction effect of fertilization with years was significantly different for all the parameters with the highest result being for application of urea except for legumes and other plant species composition. However, application of slurry is an economical way of degraded pasture land improvement and improves grass-legume species composition. © 2015 Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Teferi T.A.,Alamata Agricultural Research Center | Gebreslassie Z.S.,Mekelle Agricultural Research Center
Crop Protection | Year: 2015

Septoria tritici blotch is an important disease in many wheat-producing areas of Ethiopia which causes significant yield losses. To investigate the intensity of Septoria tritici blotch in Tigray, where wheat is one of the major crops, disease assessment surveys were conducted from 2011 to 2013 main cropping seasons. It was based on inspection of wheat fields randomly selected at 5km intervals along accessible routes. The result showed that the disease incidence and severity varied from season to season and across locations within the region. Fifty two, 147 and 137 fields were examined from 2011 to 2013, respectively. During 2011, Septoria tritici blotch was present in 53% of the inspected fields with mean incidence and severity of 14% and 19%, respectively. Likewise, the disease was also important in 2012 and 2013 seasons with grand prevalence of 64% and 38%, in that order. The mean incidence and severity of the disease was 50% and 17% in 2012 and 28% and 13% in 2013, respectively. The survey also confirms that no variety has been identified with a high level of resistance, and only varieties with partial resistance or that could tolerate the disease and produce reasonable yields. Therefore, development and deployment of resistance varieties coupled with periodic investigation of the pathogen diversity needs due emphasis for safeguarding of wheat production sustainably. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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