Karaikkudi, India
Karaikkudi, India

Alagappa University is on about 420 acres in the business town of Karaikudi in Sivaganga District in Tamil Nadu, India. Karaikudi is 400 km south of Madras on the Madras–Rameswaram line and is accessible from Tiruchirappalli and Madurai in about 2 hours by road and rail. This seat of higher education has emerged from the galaxy of institutions founded by R.M. Alagappa Chettiar. Alagappa University was brought into existence by a special Act of the state government in May 1985 with the objective of fostering research, development, and dissemination of knowledge. Alagappa University is recognized by the UGC, Government of India. It was converted from a unitary type to an affiliating type by the Tamil Nadu Universities Act, 2002, with a view to widen the horizon of its academic activities by bringing into its jurisdiction the Arts and Science colleges in the districts of Ramanathapuram and Sivaganga. Further, as per this Act, the government colleges in the above districts have become the constituent colleges of Alagappa University. As a member of the AIU and the Association of Commonwealth Universities , it has rewarding relations with other academic institutions, research laboratories and industrial establishments that promise a spectacular feature. The university's motto is “Excellence in Action.” Wikipedia.

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Narayanamoorthy A.,Alagappa University
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2017

India’s public irrigation sector is one of the largest in the world in terms of number of large reservoirs, total storage capacity and irrigated area. But poor financial performance has been threatening its sustainability. Hence, many changes have been introduced in the area of water pricing over the years. But studies that focus on the issue of financial recovery are scanty. Analysis presented in the article shows that despite a substantial increase in area under irrigation, there has been a consistent decline in revenue generated from irrigation fee collection across states. The recovery rate of irrigation fees has been better in less developed states than in more developed states. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Selvam S.,Alagappa University | Sundrarajan M.,Alagappa University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Poly-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone functionalization was done for improved the dyeability of dichlorotriazine dyes on cotton fabric. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were padded on functionalized cotton fabrics to improve antibacterial activity. The modification effects were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and EDX studies. The antibacterial activity was done against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterium. The dye exhaustion and fastness properties were analyzed for dyeing with sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and trisodium citrate bio-salt as exhausting agents. The functionalized cotton fabric showed improved dye uptake and good fastness properties. Poly-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone with ZnO nanoparticles padded fabrics showed very good antibacterial activity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Background & objectives: Subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibiotics, although not able to kill bacteria, but influence bacterial virulence significantly. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) which are used against other bacterial pathogens creates resistance in non-targeted Streptococcus pyogenes. This study was undertaken to characterize the effect of sub-MICs of FQs on S. pyogenes biofilm formation. Methods: Biofilm forming six M serotypes M56, st38, M89, M65, M100 and M74 of S. pyogenes clinical isolates were challenged against four FQs namely, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and norfloxacin. The antibiofilm potential of these FQs was analysed at their subinhibitory concentrations (1/2 to 1/64 MIC) using biofilm assay, XTT reduction assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results: Among the four FQs tested, ofloxacin and levofloxacin at 1/2 MIC showed the maximum inhibition (92%) of biofilm formation against M56 and M74 serotypes. FQs effectively interfered in the microcolony formation of S. pyogenes isolates at 1/2 to 1/8 sub-MICs. Inhibition of biofilm formation was greatly reduced beyond 1/16 MICs and allowed biofilm formation. XTT reduction assay revealed the increase in metabolic activity of S. pyogenes biofilm against the decrease in FQs concentration. SEM and CLSM validated the potential of sub-MICs of FQs against the six S. pyogenes. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the inhibitory effect all four FQs on S. pyogenes biofilm formation was concentration dependent. FQs at proper dosage can be effective against S. pyogenes and lower concentrations may allow the bacteria to form barriers against the antibiotic in the form of biofilm.

Staphylococcus aureus is now amongst the most important pathogenic bacteria responsible for bloodstream nosocomial infections and for biofilm formation on indwelling medical devices. Its increasing resistance to common antibiotics, partly attributed to its ability to form biofilms, is a challenge for the development of new antimicrobial agents. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of a coral associated actinomycete (CAA)-3 on S. aureus biofilms both in vitro and in vivo. Methanolic extracts of CAA-3 showed a reduction in in vitro biofilm formation by S. aureus ATCC 11632, methicillin resistant S. aureus ATCC 33591 and clinical isolates of S. aureus at the biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) of 0.1 mg ml(-1). Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) studies provide evidence of CAA-3 inhibiting intestinal colonisation of S. aureus in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. To conclude, this study for the first time, reports CAA as a promising source of anti-biofilm compounds, for developing novel drugs against highly resistant staphylococcal biofilms.

Madhuvilakku R.,Alagappa University | Piraman S.,Alagappa University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

Biodiesel is a promising alternating environmentally benign fuel to mineral diesel. For the development of easier transesterification process, stable and active heterogeneous mixed metal oxide of TiO2-ZnO and ZnO nanocatalysts were synthesized and exploited for the palm oil transesterification process. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and FE-SEM studies for their structural and morphological characteristics. It was found that TiO2-ZnO nanocatalyst exhibits good catalytic activity and the catalytic performance was greatly depends on (i) catalyst concentration (ii) methanol to oil molar ratio (iii) reaction temperature and (iv) reaction time. A highest 98% of conversion was obtained at the optimum reaction parameters with 200mg of catalyst loading and the biodiesel was analyzed by TLC and 1H NMR techniques. The TiO2-ZnO nanocatalyst shows good catalytic performance over the ZnO catalyst, which could be a potential candidate for the large-scale biodiesel production from palm oil at the reduced temperature and time. © 2013.

Kannusamy P.,Alagappa University | Sivalingam T.,Alagappa University
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2013

A new chitosan-ZnO/polyaniline (CPA-ZC/ZO) hybrid composite is prepared by single-step in situ oxidation polymerization of aniline hydrochloride in the presence of (NH4)2S2O8 and chitosan-ZnO (CS-ZO). The structural and morphological features of CPA and CPA-ZC/ZO hybrids were analyzed using FT-IR, UV-vis, SEM, EDXS and XRD analysis. The chemical bonding established between CPA and CPA-ZC/ZO, confirmed by FT-IR, is likely to be responsible for the enhanced chemical stability. The UV-vis spectra of CPA-ZC/ZO were found to red/blue shift as compared to those CPA molecular chains. From SEM observation, the ratio of ZnO nanoparticles to CPA altered the morphology of the hybrids from granular to plate like structure, which was confirmed by EDXS. The XRD patterns of the as-prepared hybrids show the wurtzite structure of ZnO is well maintained after the impregnation of CPA. Thermal property was studied using TG/DTA analysis shows the residual weight (TGA curves) and its weight derivative (DTA curves) of the CPA-ZC/ZO are more stable than CPA and CS-ZO. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry on the obtained hybrid materials revealed that the plate-like structure was more advantages for the electrochemical stability. Overall, the results show that the introduction of the ZnO nanoparticles into CPA matrix enhanced the thermal and electrode stability. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Thiagarajan R.,SASTRA University | Manikandan R.,Alagappa University
Free Radical Research | Year: 2013

The major causes for cataract formation are free radicals, and these free radicals are neutralized by the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the eye. Using xenobiotics, it has been confirmed that free radicals mediate the formation of cataract. Two cataract model-selenite model and the diabetic cataract model-have been developed to study the pathophysiology of cataract formation due to free radicals and the role of antioxidants during the process of cataractogenesis. This review focuses on natural compounds with antioxidant properties that could actually be applied as an interventional strategy on a large scale and are also relatively inexpensive. A brief overview of plants with antioxidant properties that in addition possess potential anti-cataract properties has been discussed. In addition to plants, three natural compounds (curcumin, vitamin C and vitamin E), on which a lot of data exist showing anti-cataract and antioxidant activities, have also been discussed. These antioxidants can be supplemented in the diet for a better defence against free radicals. Studies on vitamin C and vitamin E have proved that they are capable of preventing lipid peroxidation, thereby preventing the generation of free radicals, but their efficacy as anti-cataract agent is questionable. Unlike vitamins C and E, curcumin is well established as an anti-cataract agent, but the issue of curcumin bioavailability is yet to be addressed. Nanotechnology proves to be a promising area in increasing the curcumin bioavailability, but still a lot more research needs to be done before the use of curcumin as an effective anti-cataract agent for humans. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Babu S.A.,Alagappa University | Prabu H.G.,Alagappa University
Materials Letters | Year: 2011

This paper describes green procedure for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the extract of Calotropis procera flower. The aqueous extract of this flower has been used as green reducing and stabilizing agent. Parameters such as pH and reaction time were varied. Progress of the reaction has been monitored by surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs, which occur at 405 nm. Raman spectra revealed the unique surface enhancing property of synthesized AgNPs. XRD pattern of AgNPs confirms the crystallinity with fcc plane. The average particle size of synthesized AgNPs was found to be in the order of 35 nm. SEM analysis revealed well defined shape of AgNPs. SEM with EDX spectrum authenticated the presence of silver. FT-IR spectra indicate that synthesized AgNPs were capped with phytochemicals present in the extract. The cubical shape of AgNPs was obtained. This greener synthesis is achieved at room temperature and found to be reproducible. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Arumugam D.,Alagappa University | Kalaignan G.P.,Alagappa University
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2010

LiMn2O4 spinel cathode materials were coated with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.% CeO2 by a polymeric process, followed by calcination at 850 °C for 6 h in air. The surface-coated LiMn 2O4 cathode materials were physically characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS). XRD patterns of CeO2-coated LiMn2O4 revealed that the coating did not affect the crystal structure or the Fd3m space group of the cathode materials compared to uncoated LiMn2O4. The surface morphology and particle agglomeration were investigated using SEM, TEM image showed a compact coating layer on the surface of the core materials that had average thickness of about 20 nm. The XPS data illustrated that the CeO 2 completely coated the surface of the LiMn2O4 core cathode materials. The galvanostatic charge and discharge of the uncoated and CeO2-coated LiMn2O4 cathode materials were measured in the potential range of 3.0-4.5 V (0.5 C rate) at 30 °C and 60 °C. Among them, the 1.0 wt.% of CeO2-coated spinel LiMn 2O4 cathode satisfies the structural stability, high reversible capacity and excellent electrochemical performances of rechargeable lithium batteries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Biofilm formation is a critical problem in nosocomial infections and in the aquaculture industries and biofilms show high resistance to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to reveal a novel anti-biofilm compound from marine bacteria against antibiotic resistant gram-positive and gram-negative biofilms. The bacterial extract (50 μg ml(-1)) of S6-01 (Bacillus indicus = MTCC 5559) showed 80-90% biofilm inhibition against Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis and S6-15 (Bacillus pumilus = MTCC 5560) showed 80-95% biofilm inhibition against all the 10 tested organisms. Furthermore, they also reduced the hydrophobicity index and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. Structural elucidation of the active principle in S6-15 using GC-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectral data revealed it to be 4-phenylbutanoic acid. This is the first report of 4-phenylbutanoic acid as a natural product. The purified compound (10-15 μg ml(-1)) showed potential activity against a wide range of biofilms. This study for the first time, reports a novel anti-biofilm compound from a marine bacterium with wide application in medicine and the aquaculture industry.

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