Al Zawiya University

Zawiya, United Kingdom

Al Zawiya University

Zawiya, United Kingdom

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Ramalingam P.,Gulf Medical University | Reddy Y.P.,Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Kumar K.V.,Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Chandu B.R.,Al Zawiya University | Rajendran K.,Gulf Medical University
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2014

Introduction: The IR absorption patterns (in cm-1) provide the basis to distinguish among the constituents and to separately quantify as well as qualify them and they possess many advantages such as very small sample volume requirement, good precision over entire physiological range, avoid of costly disposables, wealth of information from a single spectral measurement. The efficacy of anti-diabetic drug metformin hydrochloride as used to treat diabetic-induced Wistar rats and their sera were analyzed by FTIR (ATR) in absorption mode. Materials and Methods: The present work was attempted in the study of normal and antidiabetic regimen-treated rat blood samples using FTIR spectroscopy by the attenuated total refl ectance (ATR) sampling technique. The biomolecule characteristics were measured as intensity ratio parameter (IRP) values and interpreted. Results: To quantify the results three IRPs such as R1, R2 and R3 were calculated, respectively, for lipid, protein, and glucose. The glucose IRP value R3 showed, 0.3802, 0.3304, and 0.2847, respectively, for diseased, metformin-treated, and normal rats. Conclusion: The IRP values for glucose are compared to the glucose level obtained by using a glucometer. This study can be conveniently used in diagnostic procedures, patient compliance assessment, and ef?cacy evaluation of metformin hydrochlorides. © Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine.

Tandian N.P.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Alkharboushi A.A.K.,Al Zawiya University | Kamajaya K.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

Natural convection heat transfer in vertical triangular sub-channel has important role in cooling mechanism of the APWR and the PHWR nuclear reactors. Unfortunately, natural convection correlation equations for such geometry are scarcely available. Recent studies showed that ZrO2-water nanofluid has a good prospect to be used in the nuclear reactor technology due to its low neutron absorption cross section. Although several papers have reported transport properties of ZrO2-water nanofluids, practically there is no correlation equation for predicting natural convection heat transfer in a vertical triangular sub-channel in ZrO2-water nanofluid. Therefore, a study for finding such heat transfer correlation equation has been done by utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics software and reported in this paper. In the study, natural convection heat transfer in a vertical triangular sub-channel has been simulated at several values of heat transfer flux within 9.1 to 30.9 kW/m2 range and ZrO2concentrations of 0 (pure water), 0.27, and 3 volume-% of ZrO2. The study shows that the ZrO2 concentration has no significant influence to the natural convection heat transfer at those concentration levels. The obtained theoretical heat transfer correlation equations were verified through experiment, and they showed very similar results. The correlation equations are reported in this paper.

Jalull G.,Coventry University | Jalull G.,Al Zawiya University | Ganjian E.,Coventry University | Sadeghi-Pouya H.,Coventry University
Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials | Year: 2014

Portland cement production releases carbon dioxide; this has significant adverse effects on the environment and so a reduction in the content of Portland cement in concrete products will improve the carbon footprint. This investigation explored the use of by-product materials and waste in the production of paving blocks. The following materials were examined: ground granulated blast-furnace slag, basic oxygen slag, plasterboard gypsum and cement by-pass dust. Ternary blends were created for different mixes and tested. The tensile strength, skid/slip resistance and freeze/thaw of each paving block specimen were determined in accordance with British Standard BS EN 1338. It was found that about 30% cement replacement was achieved in comparison with current factory production in the UK without having any considerable impact on the strength and durability of the paving blocks. It was also found that a cement mix can contain ground granulated blast-furnace slag up to 55%, basic oxygen slag up to 70%, cement by-pass dust up to 10% and plasterboard gypsum up to 5% by weight.

Irthiea I.,University of Glasgow | Green G.,University of Glasgow | Hashim S.,University of Glasgow | Kriama A.,Al Zawiya University
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture | Year: 2014

Flexible forming technology provides significant application potential in various areas of manufacturing, particularly at a miniaturized level. Simplicity, versatility of process and feasibility of prototyping makes forming techniques by using flexible tools suitable for micro sheet metal forming. This paper reports the results of FE simulation and experimental research on micro deep drawing processes of stainless steel 304 sheets utilising a flexible die. The study presents a novel technique in which an initial gap (positive or negative) is adopted between an adjustment ring and a blank holder employed in the developed forming system. The blank holder is moveable part and supported by a particular spring that provides the required holding force. The forming parameters (anisotropy of SS 304 material, initial gap, friction conditions at various contact interfaces and initial sheet thickness) related with the forming process are in details investigated. The FE models are built using the commercial code Abaqus/Standard. The numerical predictions reveal the capability of the proposed technique on producing micro metallic cups with high quality and large aspect ratio. To verify these results, number of micro deep drawing experiments is conducted using a special set up developed for this purpose. As providing a fundamental understanding is required for the commercial development of this novel forming technique, hence the optimization of the initial gap in accordance with each sheet thickness, thickness distribution and punch force/stroke relationship are detected. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ganjian E.,Coventry University | Jalull G.,Coventry University | Jalull G.,Al Zawiya University | Sadeghi-Pouya H.,Coventry University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2015

Using by-product and waste materials, such as ground granulated blast furnace (GGBS), cement by-pass dust (BPD), run-of-station ash (ROSA), basic oxygen slag (BOS), plasterboard gypsum (PG), incinerator bottom ash aggregate (IBAA), recycle crushed glass (RCG), recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), recycled bricks (RB), steel fibre (SF) and PVA-Fibre for the production of environmentally friendly paving blocks is explored. The combinations of binary and ternary cementitious blends in different mixes are considered. Paving blocks were tested for split tensile strength at 14 and 28 days, slip/skid resistance (BPN), weathering resistance and density were also measured on some selected mixes. The tests results confirmed that a concrete paving mix containing 6.3% GGBS, 0.7%, BPD and 7.0% OPC by weight can decrease Portland cement content by 30% in comparison to the percentage currently being used in most factories, without having a substantial impact on the strength or durability of the paving blocks produced in accordance with BS EN 1338:2003. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Ganjian E.,Coventry University | Jalull G.,Coventry University | Jalull G.,Al Zawiya University | Sadeghi-Pouya H.,Coventry University
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering | Year: 2015

In the production of conventional paving blocks, it is usual to use a minimum of 210 kg/m3 of cement. However, when portland cement is produced, it impacts negatively on the environment due to carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, this paper investigates the use of waste and by-product materials, such as run-of-station ash (ROSA), basic oxygen slag (BOS), ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS), plasterboard gypsum (PG), and cement bypass dust (BPD) to reduce the amount of cement in paving blocks. The combinations of binary and ternary blends in different mixes are considered. Tensile strength, skid/slip and freeze/thaw resistance of paving blocks, verified that a cementitious mix containing ROSA up to 60%, GGBS up to 55%, BPD up to 25%, and plasterboard gypsum PG up to 5% by weight can replace portland cement without having any substantial impact on the strength or durability of the blocks. XRD and XRF tests of selected mixes have been presented and discussed. Concrete blocks prepared with OPC/GGBS/BPD can reduce cement content by up to 30% in comparison to the percent of cement used in factories. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

PubMed | Al Zawiya University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

Diagnosis of pulmonary TB by conventional smear microscopy requires patient attendance on 2 consecutive days. We investigated whether collecting sputum on-the-spot for smear microscopy on the day the patient presented was as sensitive and specific for diagnosis as the conventional spot-morning-spot scheme.We enrolled 412 adults who presented between January 2009 and October 2010 at the National Centre for TB Control in Tripoli, Libya, with cough of >2 weeks duration, into a cross-sectional survey collecting four sputum specimens: on-the-spot and Xspot on Day 1; morning and on-the-spot on Day 2.97 (24%) of 401 culture results were culture positive. Spot-Xspot and spot-morning smear microscopy had, respectively, 65% and 66% sensitivity and 97% and 96% specificity (p > 0.5). Spot-Xspot-morning and Spot-morning-spot smear-microscopy had, respectively, 67% and 66% sensitivity and 96% and 96% specificity (p > 0.5).For the diagnosis of pulmonary TB, the sensitivity and specificity of front-loaded (same-day) smear microscopy is similar to that of the standard smear microscopy scheme.

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