Al Zaiem Al Azhari University

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Khartoum, Sudan
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AwadElkareem A.M.,Al Zaiem Al Azhari University | AwadElkareem A.M.,University of Pretoria | Taylor J.R.N.,University of Pretoria
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Kisra is a naturally lactic acid bacteria- and yeast-fermented sorghum thin pancake-like flatbread produced in Sudan. Kisra has considerable potential as the basis for development of a gluten-free sandwich wrap. To help direct cultivar selection for commercial production of these products, two white, tan plant non-tannin Type I, one white Type II tannin, and one red Type III tannin sorghum cultivars were evaluated with respect to kisra protein quality and physical characteristics. Kisra from the non-tannin sorghums were flexible and had an open-textured structure with many regular gas cells, whereas those from the tannin sorghums were more brittle, denser in structure, and contained far fewer and smaller gas cells. Kisra from the tannin sorghums had the lowest reactive lysine content, in vitro protein digestibility, and Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Score (PDCAAS), with values being lowest for the Type III sorghum. PDCAAS of kisra from the Type III sorghum was only 0.12, less than half of that from the Type I sorghums. As the tannins in tannin sorghums adversely affect kisra protein quality and physical characteristics, white tan plant, non-tannin sorghum cultivars are most suitable for kisra production and for development of wrap-type sorghum-based baked goods. © 2011 AACC International, Inc.


Rahoud S.A.,University of Gezira | Mergani A.,University of Gezira | Khamis A.H.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Saeed O.K.,University of Gezira | And 3 more authors.
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2010

An association study of a cohort of 177 Sudanese patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni [82 (46%) males and 95 (54%) females] was conducted to evaluate the factors controlling the regression of liver fibrosis 39 months after treatment with praziquantel using ultrasound evaluation. Periportal fibrosis (PPF) was regressed in 63 (35.6%) patients, while the disease progressed to higher grades in 24 (13.6%) patients. The grade of PPF did not change in 90 (50.8%) patients. The mean values of portal vein diameter, splenic vein diameter and index liver size in subjects in whom PPF regressed after treatment were significantly lower than in subjects in whom the disease was progressed (P<0.0001, P=0.031 and P=0.003, respectively). The progression of hepatic fibrosis in males (15, 8.5%) was greater than that in females (9, 5.1%). Patients with regression or progression phenotypes tend to cluster in certain families. Our study indicated that regression, progression and stabilization of PPF after praziquantel therapy is controlled by gender, age, grade of fibrosis and possibly inherited factors. © 2009 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.


Ali N.E.S.,Al Zaiem Al Azhari University | Elkarim A.M.A.,Al Zaiem Al Azhari University | Fageer A.S.H.M.,University of Khartoum | Nour A.A.M.,University of Khartoum
International Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

Some Acacia gums (A. senegal, A. seyal, A. polyacantha and A. laeta) were subjected to physicochemical characteristics evaluation in order to illustrate some information required for identification and differentiation between A. senegal gum and the three most important Acacia gums produced in Sudan. The results showed that the four types of Acacia gums have similar pH-values but there were some wide variations between them in other physical characters. For chemical characters Acacia. senegal show the highest value for moisture and ash content and Acacia seyal has the lowest value for nitrogen percentage, the other two types of gum were almost similar. The four types of gums show variations in mineral composition. Amino acids profile showed that Acacia laeta gum has the highest total amino acids content. Asp artic acid and serine were the most dominant amino acids in four types of Acacia gums tested. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.


Mohamed S.N.,Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research | Hassan D.A.,Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research | El Hussein A.M.,Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research | Osman I.M.,Al Zaiem Al Azhari University | And 4 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2016

Background. The most prominent variant surface antigens (VSAs) of Plasmodium falciparum are the var gene-encoded Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, which serves as a parasite-sequestering ligand to endothelial cells. In this study we have examined the antibody reactivity of autologous plasma from symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria infected children against the infected erythrocytes' surface antigens using flow cytometry. Methods. Ethidium-bromide-labelled erythrocytic mature forms of P. falciparum parasites obtained from symptomatic and asymptomatic children were sequentially incubated with autologous plasma and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated (FITC) antihuman IgG. Plasma antibody reactivity was detected by flow cytometry. Results. Asymptomatic children had more prevalence of trophozoites in peripheral blood (66%) compared to symptomatic children (16%), p = 0.002. The mean percentage of infected RBCs reacting with autologous sera was 89.78 among symptomatic children compared to 79.62 among asymptomatic children (p = 0.09). Moreover, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) in the asymptomatic was significantly higher compared to symptomatic children (p value = 0.040). Conclusion. Variant surface antigens on Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs from symptomatic malaria children tend to be better recognized by IgG antibodies. This may suggest a role of some IgG antibodies in severity of malaria. © 2016 Sara N. Mohamed et al.


Mohamedzein Y.E.-A.,Sultan Qaboos University | Nour Eldaim F.A.E.,Al Zaiem Al Azhari University | Abdelwahab A.B.,University of Khartoum
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper presents the results of laboratory model tests conducted to study the behavior of laterally loaded piles installed in plastic clay. The effects of different factors such as pile dimensions, pile material and method of installation were studied. The pile response is presented in terms of load-deflection curves, bending moment distribution, and the p-y curves. The load-deflection curves are generally non-linear specially for large length/diameter (L/d) ratios and large diameters. The ultimate lateral pile capacity increases with the increase in L/d ratio and the pile diameter. The maximum bending moment increases with the increase in L/d ratio and the pile diameter. The maximum bending moment occurs at a depth varying from 0·13L to 0·32L. The bending stresses at the ultimate load are much less than the yielding stress of steel and the flexural strength of concrete. This implies that the deflection controls the design of laterally loaded piles in plastic clays. The experimental p-y curves are different from the existing p-y curves for piles with small diameters and are approximately similar to the existing p-y curves for piles with larger diameters. The bored method of installation gives greater ultimate soil resistance than the preinstalled method for both concrete and steel piles. Overall this study showed that the laboratory model tests with relatively large diameter (>30 mm) can be used to give insight into the performance of laterally loaded piles installed in plastic clays. © 2013 W. S. Maney & Son Ltd


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