Al Yemenia University
Al Yemenia University
Al-Mamari A.,Al Yemenia University |
Al-Buryhi M.M.,Al Yemenia University |
Al-Hag S.,Al Yemenia University
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2013
Vaginal candidiasis (VC) is a fungal or yeast infection of the vulva and/or vagina. It causes a smelly, thick, whiteyellow discharge that might be accompanied by itching, burning and swelling. Vaginal candidiasis is the second most frequent infection of the female genital tract. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, insidious disease that can affect any organ of the body. One of the problems associated with this condition is infection patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of vaginal candidiasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and species distribution of Candida species isolated from vaginal candidiasis infection in diabetic and non-diabetic women in Sana'a City. This descriptive - analytic study was performed on 150 diabetic women referred to Al-Thaourah and AL-Gmohore hospitals in Sana'a City. All specimens were diagnosed or examined under direct microscopy and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) or (YEPDA) media. Complimentary tests such as germ tube test, corn meal agar media, CHROM agar test and sugar fermentation test were carried out to differentiate between the Candida species. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test was performed for positive cases. Patient's clinical history information was collected by a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test. Of 150 samples tested under all biochemical experiments and culture methods, 62 out of 150 with percentage 42% were infected to vaginal candidiasis. The frequencies of the isolated Candida species include Candida albicans 33 species with 53%, Candida glabrata with 19 species with 31%, Candida tropicalis 6 species with 10% and Candida krusei 4 species with 6%. Vaginal candidiasis was more prevalent in women infected with diabetes mellitus than ones with non-diabetes mellitus women. 11patients out of 150 patients with percentage 8% of the patients had type I diabetes mellitus and 51 patients out of 150 with percentage 34% of them type II with ratio 18:82 from totally of 62 out of 150 with 42% vaginal candidiasis patients had infected. C. albicans was, by far, the most predominant yeast isolates. The culture technique of vaginal discharge not be warranted so we used the microscopic and biochemical tests because are more sensitive in identification of Candida species than culture methods. But vaginal culture is indispensable to confirm the diagnosis by microscopic examination.
Al-mamari A.,Ibb University |
Al-mamari A.,Sana'a University |
Al-mamari A.,Al Yemenia University |
Al-buryhi M.,Ibb University |
And 8 more authors.
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2014
Recently, antifungal susceptibility testing has become more important because of the increasing incidence of both fungal infections and antifungal drug resistance. Candida vaginitis is a common fungal infection among adult women and it has been estimated that 75% of all adult women experience at least one period of vulvovaginal candidiasis in their lifetime. Several predisposing factors, such as diabetes mellitus, using contraceptive, pregnancy, and broad-spectrum antibiotics are reported as main risk factors for the infection. While, the main etiologic agent of vulvovaginal candidiasis is Candida albicans, more antifungal resistance has been reported among non-albicans species. The aim of the present study was toidentify Candida species anddeterminesusceptibility patterns of vaginal isolates of Candida to antifungal drugs including, clotrimazole, miconazole, terbinafine,nystatin, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, and econazole. In the present study, 150 vulvovaginal isolates of Candida species were investigated for performing identify and susceptibility tests. The isolates were kept in sterile distilled water at 4°C in the medical Microbiology laboratory of Al-thourah hospital. All isolates were re-identified using standard methods, germ tube test, CHROMagar Candida test and microscopic characteristics on corn meal by preparation high media. Identification was based on colonies producing a green coloration on CHROMagar and presence chlamydosporse on corn meal agar test which were presumptively identified as C. albicans. Disk diffusion method was used to evaluate susceptibility patterns. Paper disks containing clotrimazole, miconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, econazole, nystatin and terbinafine were applied for susceptibility tests. A total of 141 women were included in the study and yeasts were isolated in 93 (65.95%), of them C. albicans was the most common species among the isolates followed by C. glabrata 18 (12.76%), C. tropicalis 24 (17.02%) and C. krusei 6 (4.25%) that were isolated from vaginal infected patients.In the present study, we founded that 5 isolates of C. krusei were sensitive to ketoconazole, clotrimazole and miconazole. In addition both isolates were resistant to fluconazole, nystatin, econazole and terfinafine. Only 9 isolate of C. tropicalis was sensitive to miconazole and terbinafine and two isolates to clotrimazole. Highest sensitivity of C. albicans to antifungal drugs was seen against miconazole (89 of 93 isolates) followed by, clotrimazole (81), terbinafine (38) and ketoconazole (13) whereas 73 isolates were resistant to fluconazole and econazole antifungals. 17 out of 18 isolates of C. glabrata were resistant to fluconazole, whereas all isolates were sensitive to miconazole. Antifungal sensitivity testing suggests that vaginal isolates of Candida were most sensitive to miconazole, clotrimazole, and terbinafine, and least sensitive to econazole and fluconazole.