As Samawah, Iraq
As Samawah, Iraq

Al Muthanna University is an Iraqi university located in Samawah, Al Muthanna Province, Iraq. It was established in 2007. Wikipedia.

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Motosugi U.,Yamanashi University | Ichikawa T.,Yamanashi University | Muhi A.,Yamanashi University | Muhi A.,Al Muthanna University | And 4 more authors.
Investigative Radiology | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine liver stiffness value measured by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and laboratory test results to find the best method for predicting insufficient liver enhancement on gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatocyte-phase images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional ethics committee approved this retrospective study with waiver of informed consent. In total, 118 patients with Child-Pugh class A disease and type C hepatitis underwent MRE and gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. During MRE examination, a pneumatic passive driver was used to obtain liver stiffness in kPa. Liver enhancement was assessed using liver-to-spleen contrast ratio (LSR), calculated using signal intensities of the liver and spleen on hepatocyte-phase magnetic resonance images obtained 20 minutes after contrast administration of gadoxetic acid. Insufficient liver enhancement was defined as an LSR lower than 1.5. The following laboratory test results were used as possible predictors of insufficient liver enhancement as well as liver stiffness measured by MRE: albumin, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, percentage prothrombin time, and platelet count. Correlation coefficients were calculated between LSR and these variables. Logistic analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of insufficient liver enhancement. RESULTS: All possible predictors investigated were significantly correlated with LSR. Logistic regression analysis revealed that MRE was the only variable to predict insufficient liver enhancement, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.03 (1.22-3.85) (P = 0.0138). A cutoff value of greater than 6.4 kPa yielded 95% specificity for predicting insufficient liver enhancement. CONCLUSION: Gadoxetic acid is not recommended in patients with liver stiffness greater than 6.4 kPa (consistent with severe fibrosis) because of insufficient liver enhancement on hepatocyte-phase images. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

Zhang T.,University of Waterloo | Muraih J.K.,Al Muthanna University | MacCormick B.,BioMedica Diagnostics | Silverman J.,Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Palmer M.,University of Waterloo
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2014

Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic that is used clinically to treat severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Its bactericidal action involves the calcium-dependent binding to membranes containing phosphatidylglycerol, followed by the formation of membrane-associated oligomers. Bacterial cells exposed to daptomycin undergo membrane depolarization, suggesting the formation of channels or pores in the target membranes. We here used a liposome model to detect and characterize the permeability properties of the daptomycin pores. The pores are selective for cations, with permeabilities being highest for Na+, K+, and other alkali metal ions. The permeability is approximately twice lower for Mg++, and lower again for the organic cations choline and hexamethonium. Anions are excluded, as is the zwitterion cysteine. These observations account for the observed depolarization of bacterial cells by daptomycin and suggest that under typical in vivo conditions depolarization is mainly due to sodium influx. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mugwar A.J.,University of Cardiff | Mugwar A.J.,Al Muthanna University | Harbottle M.J.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2016

Biological precipitation of metallic contaminants has been explored as a remedial technology for contaminated groundwater systems. However, metal toxicity and availability limit the activity and remedial potential of bacteria. We report the ability of a bacterium, Sporosarcina pasteurii, to remove metals in aerobic aqueous systems through carbonate formation. Its ability to survive and grow in increasingly concentrated aqueous solutions of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper is explored, with and without a metal precipitation mechanism. In the presence of metal ions alone, bacterial growth was inhibited at a range of concentrations depending on the metal. Microbial activity in a urea-amended medium caused carbonate ion generation and pH elevation, providing conditions suitable for calcium carbonate bioprecipitation, and consequent removal of metal ions. Elevation of pH and calcium precipitation are shown to be strongly linked to removal of zinc and cadmium, but only partially linked to removal of lead and copper. The dependence of these effects on interactions between the respective metal and precipitated calcium carbonate are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the bacterium operates at higher metal concentrations in the presence of the urea-amended medium, suggesting that the metal removal mechanism offers a defence against metal toxicity. © 2016 The Authors.

Hello K.M.,Al Muthanna University | Hasan H.R.,University of Baghdad | Sauodi M.H.,University of Baghdad | Morgen P.,University of Southern Denmark
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2014

Titration of chlorosulphonic acid against sodium silicate was carried out via a simple one pot synthesis at room temperature to form an acid catalyst denoted as RHSO3H. The BET measurements of the catalyst showed the surface area to be 80 m2 g-1. The FT-IR clearly showed the presence of -SO2- absorption band at the expected range. The XPS showed the presence of O, Si, and S. The presence of S 2p on the XPS spectra indicated that the sulphonic acid groups (-SO3H) are included into the catalyst structure. The RHSO3H was efficient for the hydrolysis of cellulose, with maximum glucose yields over 99% at 120 C with 100% selectivity. As the solubility of cellulose is very important factor to make the hydrolysis much more easily. It was observed that the mixture of DMF/LiCl or cyclohexanol/LiCl has high ability to dissolve cellulose. The catalyst was simple in its preparation, stable during the cellulose hydrolysis in addition to repeatedly without a significant loss of its catalytic activity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Adam F.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Batagarawa M.S.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Hello K.M.,Al Muthanna University | Al-Juaid S.S.,King Abdulaziz University
Chemical Papers | Year: 2012

A one-pot method was employed to immobilize sulfonic acid onto silica obtained from rice husk ash using 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane to form a solid catalyst denoted as RHASO3H. BET measurements of the catalyst showed the surface area to be 340 m2 g-1 with the average pore volume of 0.24 mL g-1 and the pore diameter of 2.9 nm. Acidity test of cation exchange capacity and pyridine adsorption studies revealed the presence of Brønsted acid sites on the catalyst surface. The catalyst was used in the acetalization reaction of glycerol with benzaldehyde. Under optimized conditions, the reaction showed the maximum conversion of 78 % after 8 h with 67 % selectivity towards the five membered ring isomer. Variation in the glycerol concentration had a significant effect on the reactants conversion. A single crystal X-ray study of one of the products proved the existence of a unique trimer formed by hydrogen bonding by the six-membered cis-isomer. The catalyst was several times recycled without any loss of its catalytic activity. © 2012 Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences.

Adam F.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Hello K.M.,Al Muthanna University | Chai S.-J.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Chemical Engineering Research and Design | Year: 2012

A simple route is demonstrated for the efficient immobilization of silica with l-(N-α-acetylphenylalanine)-ruthenium(III) complex. This catalyst was labelled as RHAPhe-Ru. The 29Si MAS NMR showed the presence of T 3, T 2, Q 3 and Q 4 silicon centers. The 13C MAS NMR showed the presence of three chemical shifts consistent with the three carbon atoms of the propyl group. The catalytic performance of RHAPhe-Ru was tested in the esterification of ethyl alcohol. A conversion of 82% was achieved, with 100% selectivity towards ethyl acetate. The catalyst could be regenerated by washing with ethanol and drying at 110°C for 24h without significant loss in reactivity. © 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

Adam F.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Hello K.M.,Al Muthanna University | Ali T.H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2011

Sulfanilic acid was immobilized onto rice husk ash via 3-(chloropropyl) triethoxy-silane to form an acidic solid catalyst denoted as RHAPhSO 3H. The BET surface area was found to be 308 m2 g -1. Pyridine adsorption study revealed the presence of Brønsted acid sites. The EDX analysis showed the presence of S (10.88%) and N (10.37%). The 29Si MAS NMR showed the presence of T 2, T3, Q3 and Q4 silicon centres. The three carbon atoms of the propyl group were evident from the 13C MAS NMR together with a series of chemical shifts consistent with the presence of the benzene ring. In the alkylation of phenol using RHAPhSO3H as the catalyst resulted in 95% conversion of tert-butyl alcohol at 120 °C with 52% selectivity towards 4-tert-butylphenol. The catalyst was reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kbah A.A.R.,Al Muthanna University
CESB 2016 - Central Europe Towards Sustainable Building 2016: Innovations for Sustainable Future | Year: 2016

Planning is the base and the foundation for sustainable development in all economic, social and environmental aspects.Two eras were selected for comparison in the development indicators (sustainable) in Iraq, the first period is between 1 950 to 1959 (the period of the fifties) and in spite of the absence of sustainable development terminology , but there is indicators thr measuring the development in that period including the fi)undation of the Iraqi Construction Council. The second period is from 2006-2013 since the state budget reached its maximum during this period, in addition to the universal attention towards sustainable development during the twenty-first century. A big amount of the highly budget during the second period was used fir construction of new governmental building and infrastructure projects. Unfortunately the understanding and principles of Sustainable development and sustainable building were not applied neither in single building nor in big projects. This paper investigates the reason behind absence of using the understanding and principles of sustainable building in Iraq project during the period between 2006 and 2013. The questions are fbcused on availability of tools to incorporate the sustainable building in projects. Results were statistically analyzed and reasons of absence of application the sustainable building were identified. Results will be provided in the fuLl paper version. The research will used the scientific analysis to the output project development statistics, and proposed that the fifties period (during Iraqi construction Council in the 1950's) it is considered the ideal period in planning and decisions for long terms sustainability).

Hello K.M.,Al Muthanna University | Adam F.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Ali T.H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers | Year: 2014

Silica extracted from rice husk ash was functionalized with 3-mercptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and then oxidized to sulfonic acid at room temperature and pressure. The FT-IR analysis shows bands at 1354-1166cm-1 due to the asymmetric and symmetric stretching of SO2 group. The 13C CP MAS NMR of RHAPrSO3H showed chemical shifts at 58.6, 12.1 and 23.0ppm attributed to the three carbon atoms of the propyl chain. The pyridine acidity test showed strong bands at 1510, 1541cm-1 in the FT-IR spectrum attributed to the Brønsted acid sites. In the alkylation of phenol using RHAPrSO3H, a conversion of ca. 75% was achieved at the reaction temperature of 120°C. The catalyst could be regenerated by washing and drying at 185°C for 24h. The catalyst was reused several times without loss of catalytic activity. © 2013 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Adam F.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Hello K.M.,Al Muthanna University | Aisha M.R.B.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers | Year: 2011

7-Amino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANSA) was immobilized onto silica via a simple sol-gel technique to form strong Brønsted acid site, RHANPSO3H. Spherical nano sized catalyst particles were obtained in this study. The 29Si MAS NMR showed the presence of T3, T2, Q3 and Q4 silicon centers. The 13C MAS NMR analysis showed the presence of three chemical shifts consistent with the three carbon atoms of the propyl group. Chemical shifts in the range 122.2-138.9ppm indicate the presence of the naphthalene ring. The catalytic performance of RHANPSO3H was tested in the esterification of n-butyl alcohol with different mono and di-acids at 117°C with 88% conversion of respective alcohols and 100% selectivity towards the ester. The catalyst could be regenerated by washing with ethanol and drying at 180°C for 24h. © 2011 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers.

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