Balochistan, Pakistan

Al-Hamd Islamic University

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Balochistan, Pakistan
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Ashfaq A.,Al-Hamd Islamic University
Pollution Research | Year: 2013

Stringent regulations are made for the removal of heavy metal ions from water and wastewaters prior to discharge into water bodies. Fly ash, generated during the combustion of coal for energy production, is an industrial by-product which is recognized as an environmental pollutant. The equilibrium uptake of various metals from wastewater pathways through sorption under operating conditions including pH, equilibrium time, metal concentration and biosorbent loading is considered by several researchers. Langmuir and Freundlich models are generally used for fitting sorption data. Fly ash can also effectively remove metals from multi-metal solutions. This paper reviews the art in the field of biosorption by application of fly ash as biosorbent. Copyright © EM International.


Ashfaq A.,Al-Hamd Islamic University
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2011

The contamination of water due to toxic heavy metal ions is accountable for causing several damages to the environment and adverse effects on health of the people; as these are non-biodegradable and get accumulated in living tissues, thus becoming concentrated throughout the food chain. Utilization of one waste material to control pollution caused by another is of high significance in the remediation of environmental problems. Rice husk, an abundantly available agricultural waste, can be used as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of dyes and heavy metals from effluent streams. Conventional technologies for the removal/remediation of toxic metal ions from wastewaters are proving expensive due to non-regenerable materials used and high costs. Biosorption is emerging as a technique offering the use of economical alternate biological materials for the purpose. This paper presents the use of rice husk to exhibit different affinities toward different metals and hence its importance to be employed as an effective biosorbent material. Copyright© EM International.


Ashfaq A.,Al-Hamd Islamic University
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2011

Yamuna River is used for various human activities, which results in degradation of its quality. In this context, analysis was done in order to specify whether it is fit for irrigation purposes. Study had been conducted for different locations including Palla, Nizamuddin, Kalindikunj, Agra Canal and Okhla. The different parameters evaluated from irrigational point of view were pH, conductivity, Chlorides, percent Sodium absorption ratio, residual Sodium Carbonate, BOD & COD. After analysis it was concluded that Yamuna water can be utilized for the studied stretch. Cowrisht© EM International.


Ashfaq A.,Al-Hamd Islamic University
Journal of Industrial Pollution Control | Year: 2013

Air pollution can have serious costs, penalties and consequences for the health of human beings and also ruthlessly distresses the natural bio-network and ecosystems. The main consequences of air pollution are global warming, acid rain, smog, ozone depletion etc. India ranks 13th most polluted country with an annual mean of 109 μg/m3 of PM10. China contributes 21.5% of the total CO2 emission followed by U.S. (20.2%), Russia (5.5%) and India (5.3%). On a larger scale, government is taking measures to limit emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to protect the quality of environment. According to W.H.O. report air pollution causes about 2 million premature deaths worldwide per year. The Clean Air Act is a superb representation of the government's role in air pollution prevention. It aids to influence and enforce laws that attempt to eliminate or dilute the causes of air pollution. This paper deals with the causes, effects, present status and the remedial measures to counter the existing problem of air pollution, so as to create quality atmosphere in existence. © EM International Printed in India. All rights reserved.


Ashfaq A.,Al-Hamd Islamic University
Journal of Industrial Pollution Control | Year: 2013

Due to enhanced economic activities and rapid urbanization, waste generation has increased dramatically in the last few decades. Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is a challenging problem for developing countries. India produces 42.0 million tons of municipal solid waste annually at present. Annual increase in overall quantity of solid waste is assessed at about 5% and nearly three-fourths of the waste is generated in urban areas. MSW amount is expected to increase significantly in the near future as the country strives to attain an industrialized nation status by the year 2020. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation in Mumbai is highest being 5,355 (tpd) followed by Delhi and Kolkata being 4000 and 3692 (tpd) respectively. When solid waste is disposed off on land in open dumps or in improperly designed landfills (e.g., in low lying areas), it causes an adverse impact on the environment, such as ground water contamination, generation of inflammable gases, acidity to surrounding soil, release of green house gases etc. The paper discusses the environmental impacts of improper solid waste management, structure and sources of MSW generation and regulations and also deals with the technical details of waste processing method. A brief description of MSW management problem and present scenario in India is also included in the paper, along with health hazards and impact on Environment. © EM International Printed in India. All rights reserved.


Ashfaq A.,Al-Hamd Islamic University
Pollution Research | Year: 2012

The presence of heavy metals in the environment can be detrimental to a variety of living species, including human beings. A variety of biological materials have received increasing attention for heavy metal removal and recovery due to their good performance, low cost and large available quantities. Biosorbents are cheaper, more effective alternatives for the removal of metallic elements, especially heavy metals from aqueous solution. In this paper, based on the literature, the emphasis is laid on biosorption performance, modification, regeneration/reuse, modeling of biosorption and potential application. The sorption isotherms were described by using the Langmuir and Freundlich models and the kinetic experimental data were correlated by the pseudo first and second-order kinetic models. Copyright © EM International.


Ashfaq A.,Al-Hamd Islamic University | Saadia A.,Al-Hamd Islamic University
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2011

The extent of uptake of the different metals with the tested algae under different conditions such as pH, time of algal residence in solution with the metal and concentration of algal biomass is considered by several researchers. Many algae have immense capability to sorb metals and there is considerable potential for using them to treat wastewaters. Dead cells sorb more metal than live cells. Algae can effectively remove metals from multi-metal solutions. Langmuir and Freundlich models are commonly used for fitting sorption data. For commercial application of algal technology to remove metal ions from wastewaters, emphasis should be given to selection of strains with high metal sorption capacity, adequate understanding of sorption mechanisms, development of low cost methods for cell immobilization, development of better models for predicting metal sorption and economic feasibility. This paper reviewed the art in the field of biosorption using algae as biomass. Copyright © EM International.


Ashfaq A.,Al-Hamd Islamic University
Pollution Research | Year: 2012

With a rapid increase in population and improved living standards, the pressure on water resources is increasing day-by-day. A vast majority of groundwater quality problems are caused by contamination, over-exploitation, or combination of the two. According to estimates, it accounts for nearly 80% of the rural domestic water needs, and 50% of the urban water needs. Groundwater is used intensively for irrigation and industrial purposes. Safe water for all can only be assured when access, sustainability and equity can be guaranteed. This paper discusses the various groundwater problems in India, their sources, factors responsible for groundwater pollution problems due to overexploitation of groundwater and the remedial measures to overcome this disaster. Copyright © EM International.


Ashfaq A.,Al-Hamd Islamic University
Pollution Research | Year: 2012

The equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters have been studied for the removal of Ni(II) and Cr(III) ions from dilute aqueous solution onto dried sludge, generated from brewery plant. The optimum biosorption conditions were obtained at temperature and biomass concentration of 25°C and 1.0 mg/L respectively. Isotherm models namely Langmuir and Freundlich were analyzed for the applicability of the experimental data. The maximum biosorption capacity for Ni(II) and Cr(III) ions were obtained as 29.74 and 36.48 mg/g of the biosorbent applied. It was also found that biosorption of heavy metals ions followed second-order kinetics. An increase of temperature from 15°C to 40°C enhanced the biosorption of the ions slightly. Copyright © EM International.


Ashfaq A.,Al-Hamd Islamic University | Khursheed A.,Al-Hamd Islamic University
Pollution Research | Year: 2011

With the increase in population, rise in living standard of people and increase in boundary of Nagar Nigam the water demand has increased. The water demand includes requirement of cantonment, industrial and commercial areas. Rapid expansion of the city would take place near rural areas, industries and roads. The various parameters evaluated for the assessment of water quality included pH, D.O, Turbidity, TDS, Chlorides and Iron. The methods adopted for the prediction of future population were included Arithmetic Increase Method, Incremental Increase Method Geometric Increase Method and State Urban Average Method. The average of first two methods was taken for the design purpose. This paper presents the existing water supply sources, present and future population estimation, present water demand and future expansion of the Meerut urban areas and identifying water quality deterioration and ground water depletion. Copyright © EM International.

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