Al Bahah, Saudi Arabia

Al Baha University

www.bu.edu.sa/
Al Bahah, Saudi Arabia

Albaha University is a university in Al Baha city, the capital of Al Baha province, Saudi Arabia. It is a public university that was founded in 2006. The president of the university is Prof. Dr. Saad bin Mohammad Alhareky. The main campus is at Alaqiq about 25 km away from Al Baha city. The other campuses are in Almikhwah, Almandaq, and Baljurashi. The land of the main campus in Alaqiq occupies about 6.7 km2. The university emphasizes public services in all of its disciplines. Wikipedia.


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Aldossary N.A.,University of Cardiff | Rezgui Y.,Al Baha University | Kwan A.,University of Cardiff
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

The paper analyses and discusses domestic energy consumption patterns in the city of Jeddah characterized by its hot and humid climate and its geographical location in a global region renowned for its high energy consumption and carbon emission rates. The selected case studies involve three typical houses and three typical flats with the objective of analysing their average domestic energy consumption based on (a) monthly electricity bills, (b) user behaviour captured through interviews with the selected properties' occupants, and (c) detailed energy modelling and simulation using IES-VE software. Resulting high energy consumption patterns are then discussed focussing on building design (form and fabric) and user behaviour. Based on the identified design weaknesses, regionally replicable energy retrofitting solutions (including, shading devices, domestic renewable energy sources, and efficient glazing) are explored and simulated in IES-VE suggesting an energy consumption reduction in a range from 21% to 37%. Regionally replicable recommendations are then proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Khalil S.A.,National Institute for Space Research | Shaffie A.M.,Egyptian Meteorological Authority EMA | Shaffie A.M.,Al Baha University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Solar irradiance is attenuated spectrally when passing through the earth's atmosphere and it is strongly dependent on sky under cloudless conditions. The prevailing winds, which may transport moisture or aerosol particles from distant sources, play a major role in the seasonal variation of turbidity. A direct measurement of the aerosol transmittance is not possible due to the strong influence of the other atmospheric components. During the last century, a number of atmospheric turbidity indices were introduced and several methods were developed to determine their values. This paper provides a review of the effect of aerosols on solar radiation budget by considering two common turbidity parameters including the Linke turbidity factor (TL) and Angstrom turbidity coefficients (β) and (α). Furthermore, an investigation of atmospheric turbidity has been undertaken in Egypt (Cairo, Aswan and Marsa-Matruh), from 1990 to 2013: turbidity indexes, namely, Linke factor (TL) and Ångström coefficient (β). The Angstrom turbidity coefficients (β) have been determined at fixed air masses during the first and second halves of the day at different spectroscopic solar energy bands, the maximum values of turbidity in the summer due to dust storms and vertical convection. And low values of turbidity index in the winter, due to precipitation removal as well as relative humidity-impacted deposition, but the middle values of turbidity were observed in the spring and autumn seasons. The maximum values of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient occur around the noon time. Annual variations show lowest values in winter months and highest values in both spring months, due to the khamsin continental wind lead to more polluting effects on the prevailing air masses and summer months due to hot air mass and large water vapor contents. The Angstrom turbidity coefficient decreases with increase in both wavelengths and optical air masses. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Ibrahim M.M.,Suez Canal University | Ibrahim M.M.,Al Baha University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2010

The variation in cystic echinococcosis (CE) prevalence and mean intensity was studied in relation to site, season and host age and sex. A total of 12,911 slaughtered animals, 140 camels, 2668 cattle, 6525 sheep and 3578 goats were inspected for hydatid cysts in Al Baha region, Saudi Arabia, in three study areas during four seasons from June 2008 to May 2009. The prevalence of infection was 32.85%, 8.28%, 12.61% and 6.56% in camels, cattle, sheep and goats respectively. The prevalence of the parasite varied significantly in relation to site, season and host age classes and sex in most host species. Spring showed the highest prevalence in camels, cattle and sheep. A significant association was found among host age classes and likelihood of infection in all examined hosts and the oldest age class was significantly more likely to be infected. The main effects in parasite intensity were host sex and age in most examined host species. A positive correlation was found between intensity of CE and host age class in all animal species examined. The most commonly infected organs were liver and lungs which constituted 48.75% and 32.83% respectively, of the total infected organs. There was a significant difference among host species in fertile cysts (P < 0.0001). The higher percentages of fertile cysts were in sheep (47.67%) and goats (23.99%) indicating that sheep and goats are the most important intermediate hosts for Echinococcus granulosus. Examined hydatid cysts of the liver had a higher fertility rate (38.79%) than those of the lungs (25.13%). Cysts size ranged from 1 to 8 cm in diameter. The mean cyst diameter was found in the lungs higher than that in the liver in all hosts. The range in the number of cysts was 1-33 in infected animals. The mean number of cysts was higher in lungs than that in liver in all examined animals. The viability rate of protoscoleces of liver fertile cysts (62.20%) was significantly higher than that of lung cysts (52.73%). In conclusion, these findings of infection, mean abundance and fertility rates of CE in slaughtered animals, prompt plans for further epidemiological studies and control programmes. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Phaseolus vulgaris plants were grown in the presence of NaCl and/or CdCl2 beginning from the second week, sprayed twice with moringa leaf extract (MLE) at 21 and 28 days after sowing (DAS), and were sampled at 35 DAS for growth and chemical analyses and yielded at the end of experiment. Growth traits, level of photosynthetic pigments, green pod yield and pod protein were significantly reduced with exposing the plants to NaCl and/or CdCl2. However, the follow up foliar application with MLE detoxified the stress generated by NaCl and/or CdCl2 and significantly enhanced the aforementioned parameters. Either individual or combined used stresses increased the electrolyte leakage (EL), lipid peroxidation and plant Cd2+ content, and decreased the membrane stability index (MSI) and relative water content (RWC). However, the foliar application of MLE in the absence of the stress improved the MSI and RWC and minimized plant Cd2+ content but could not affect EL and lipid peroxidation. Proline content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant increase in response to MLE as well as to NaCl and/or CdCl2 stress. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


The 1,2,4-triazole containing Schiff base metal complexes were prepared by condensation with some heterocyclic aldehydes. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-visible, FT-IR, 1H NMR and physical measurements. The IR spectra indicate the bidentate behaviour of the ligand towards the divalent metal ions via one azomethine-N and the sulfur atom of the thiol group. The magnetic moments and electronic spectral data suggest a square-planar geometry for Cu(II) and Ni(II) compounds and a tetrahedral geometry for Zn(II) complexes. Elemental analyses data of the metal complexes indicate 2:l molar ratio (ligand:metal) and agree with their proposed structures. The antimicrobial screening results showed that the Schiff bases were bacterial and fungal static agents. The antimicrobial activity was enhanced on coordination with the metal ion. The order of complexes activity was Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Zn(II) complexes. The complexes showed more activity against A. niger fungus than bacterial strains.


Alghamdi S.A.,Al Baha University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2016

At present, information systems are highly susceptible to unauthorized human access. Various techniques have been introduced to secure these information systems. One of the most popular techniques for verifying the user for gaining access to information systems is fingerprint recognition. The popularity of fingerprint biometric is due to its invariant behavior over age and time. A novel and accurate fingerprint identification technique is presented in this paper based on neural nature of a pRAM. The proposed method uses a methodology incorporating the use of data mappings and reinforcement learning in order to maximize the efficiency and accuracy in identifying the scanned user prints. Since, the world is moving in the era of “Internet of things (IoT),” these biometric techniques are integral to the future information securing framework. pRAM-based network is a recently introduced technique employed in pattern recognition and is different from other classical neural network models reason being that a pRAM networks gets trained in relatively less time and can be implemented in minimal hardware setup. Here the application of the permuted mapping is derived using the proposed data-based input mapping with a bit plane-encoding scheme to cover multi-gray level images. Furthermore, binarization is also done using eight binary planes and a high-resolution image is processed by dividing it into sub-images so that it can be handled by several networks in parallel. The current recognition procedure has been applied on realistic fingerprint scans/images and the results drawn have shown significant improvements. The present results drawn here prove that a pRAM structure can provide highly reliable results by introducing the permuted mapping scheme for efficient identification. © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016.


Multitarget tracking in a cluttered environment is a significant issue with a wide variety of applications. A typical approach to address this issue is the joint probabilistic data association (JPDA) technique. This technique determines joint probabilities over all targets and hits and updates the predicted target state estimate using a probability-weighted sum of innovations. This paper proposes a new joint possibilistic data association technique for tracking multiple targets. Unlike the JPDA technique, the proposed technique determines joint possibilities over all targets and hits and updates the predicted target state estimate using a possibility-weighted sum of innovations. The possibility weights are determined using the noise covariance matrices and the current received measurements such that the total sum of the distances between all measurements and targets is minimized. The proposed technique performs data association based on a possibility matrix of measurements to trajectories; thus, it highly reduces the computational complexity compared to conventional data association techniques. The proposed association technique is applied to examples of multitarget tracking in a cluttered environment, and the results demonstrate its efficiency. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Adult worms of Rhadinorhynchus dorsoventrospinosus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinor-hynchidae) were collected from the small intestine of the red spot emperor Lethrinus lentjan (family Lethrinidae) from locations along the Red Sea at Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. Twenty three out of 70 fish specimens (32.9%) were found to be naturally infected. The parasite was described using photo research Zeiss microscopy and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Light microscopic studies revealed that the adult worm possessed a proboscis which was long, cylindrical with a uniform width measured 0.44 +/- 0.02 (0.38-0.46) mm in length and 0.1 +/- 10.02 (0.09-0.15) mm in width. Proboscis hooks observed by scanning electron microscopy were large, uniform in size (14-16 rows of 26 hooks each) with a row of longer hooks at the base. Comparison between the present described species and four species of the same genus was done, it was observed that there was only one comparable species, R dorsoventrospinosus resembled the present parasite in the general morphology and differed from others, so the present studied species is classified as R. dorsoventrospinosus with new host and locality records.


A new adaptive decentralized soft decision combining rule for multiple-sensor distributed detection systems with data fusion is proposed. Unlike previously published rules, the proposed combining rule fuses soft decisions of sensors rather than hard decisions of sensors and does not require the knowledge of the false alarm and detection probabilities of the distributed sensors. Such a fusion rule is adaptive, insensitive to the instabilities of the sensor thresholds, and has the advantage of soft decision fusion. The proposed combination rule is derived: (1) for the case where the fusion center estimates the error probabilities of the sensors and (2) for the case where the fusion center does not estimate the error probabilities of the sensors. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated, and illustrative examples are presented in the cases of Gaussian and Rayleigh distributed observations. Comparisons with the optimum centralized fusion, the optimum soft decision fusion, a soft decision fusion approach based on fusing confidence levels, and the optimum decentralized hard decision fusion are also presented. The results indicate that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the optimum decentralized hard decision fusion, is better than the approach based on fusing confidence levels, and has a performance similar to that of the optimum soft decision fusion. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Currently, multiple sensors distributed detection systems with data fusion are used extensively in both civilian and military applications. The optimality of most detection fusion rules implemented in these systems relies on the knowledge of probability distributions for all distributed sensors. The overall detection performance of the central processor is often worse than expected due to instabilities of the sensors probability density functions. This paper proposes a new multiple decisions fusion rule for targets detection in distributed multiple sensor systems with data fusion. Unlike the published studies, in which the overall decision is based on single binary decision from each individual sensor and requires the knowledge of the sensors probability distributions, the proposed fusion method derives the overall decision based on multiple decisions from each individual sensor assuming that the probability distributions are not known. Therefore, the proposed fusion rule is insensitive to instabilities of the sensors probability distributions. The proposed multiple decisions fusion rule is derived and its overall performance is evaluated. Comparisons with the performance of single sensor, optimum hard detection, optimum centralized detection, and a multiple thresholds decision fusion, are also provided. The results show that the proposed multiple decisions fusion rule has higher performance than the optimum hard detection and the multiple thresholds detection systems. Thus it reduces the loss in performance between the optimum centralized detection and the optimum hard detection systems. Extension of the proposed method to the case of target detection when some probability density functions are known and applications to binary communication systems are also addressed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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