Al Laham N.A.,Al - Azhar University of Gaza
Journal of Infection and Public Health | Year: 2012
Objectives: This study was conducted in general operating theaters at public and private hospitals in the Gaza Strip, Palestine to determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination of different objects. Methods: Swabs were collected from 21 items that were distributed over three categories (equipment, environment and personnel). In total, 243 swabs were collected at pre- and post-operation stages and were cultured and identified using standard microbiological procedures. Results: The results show that 24.7% of the swabs were contaminated with microorganisms. The equipment, environment and personnel were responsible for 45%, 48.3% and 6.7% of contamination, respectively. The rate (26.9%) of contamination in the post-operation samples was higher than in the pre-operation samples (22.6%), but the difference was not statistically significant. In addition, there was not a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of contamination in private (28.7%) compared to public hospitals (21.8%). Of the seven bacterial genera that were recovered, the highest percentage belonged to Staphylococcus spp. (45.3%) followed by Enterobacter spp. (23.4%). Conclusions: This study reveals a moderate percentage of contamination in our public and private hospital general operating theaters, which may increase the risk factors for developing surgical-site infections. These observations justify more attention being paid to infection-control efforts in our hospitals. © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences.
Sirdah M.M.,Al - Azhar University of Gaza
Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews | Year: 2015
Taurine, 2-amino ethanesulfonic acid, is a conditionally essential β amino acid which is not utilized in protein synthesis. Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in mammals tissues and is one of the three well-known sulfur-containing amino acids; the others are methionine and cysteine which are considered as the precursors for taurine synthesis. Different scientific studies emphasize on the cytoprotective properties of taurine which included antioxidation, antiapoptosis, membrane stabilization, osmoregulation, and neurotransmission. Protective and therapeutic ameliorations of oxidative stress-induced pathologies were also attributed to taurine both in experimental and human models. Data demonstrating the beneficial effectiveness of taurine against type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and their complications are growing and providing a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Although the clinical studies are limited compared to the experimental ones, the present updated systematic review of the literature is set up to provide experimental and clinical evidences regarding the effectiveness of taurine in the context of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Gathering these scientific effects of taurine on diabetes mellitus could provide the physicians and specially the endocrinologists with a comprehensive overview on possible trends in the prevention and management of the disease and its complications through antioxidant supplementation. © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alkahlout A.,Al - Azhar University of Gaza
Physics Research International | Year: 2015
Transparent conducting Ga:ZnO (GZO) and Al:ZnO (AZO) layers have been deposited by spin coating on glass substrates using crystalline nanoparticles redispersed in 1-propanol. The coatings have been sintered in air at 600°C for 15 min and then postannealed in a reducing atmosphere at 400°C for 90 min. The effect of Ga and Al doping on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the obtained thin films was investigated. Both films were found to be crystalline with a hexagonal structure. A single step spin coated layer 52-56 nm thick is obtained. To increase the thickness and lower the obtained sheet resistance multilayers coatings have been used. The visible transmission of both layers is high (T>80%). The influence of the sintering temperature and the optimum doping concentration was investigated. Five layers synthesized with doping ratio of 1 mol.% and sintered at 600°C and then submitted to reducing treatment in forming gas exhibited a minimum resistivity value of 7.4 × 10-2 Ω·cm for GZO layer and 1.45 Ω·cm for AZO coating. © 2015 A. Alkahlout.
EL Tayyan A.A.,Al - Azhar University of Gaza
Turkish Journal of Physics | Year: 2013
This article suggests a simple method of modeling and simulation of photovoltaic systems. The main goal is to find the parameters (Iph , Io , Rs , Rsh, and a) of the single-diode model by adjusting the P-V curve and/or I-V curve at parameters provided by the manufacturer specification sheets ( Isc , Voc , I mp, and Vmp). An empirical model is incorporated into the single-diode model in order to remove its implicit nature and to ease the calculations. Calculations using this method can be extended to generate the I-V curves at temperatures and irradiances other than the standard test condition (STC).
Lubbad S.H.,Al - Azhar University of Gaza
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2016
Poly(methyl styrene-co-bis(p-vinylbenzyl)dimethylsilane)-based monolithic capillary columns were optimized for separation of low, medium, and high molecular-weight analytes. The morphology and consequently the chromatographic performance of these monoliths were tuned by changes in the volume-ratio of monomer to macroporogen, establishing good monolithic flow-through and retention pores. Two monoliths were prepared and analyzed by reversed-phase chromatographic separation of low molecular-weight analytes such as alkyl benzenes and β-blockers, as well as medium and high molecular-weight analytes such as peptides and proteins, respectively. The microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and by inverse-size exclusion chromatography (ISEC). Monolith 1 demonstrated a high retention of alkyl benzenes, which coeluted from the column at the washing step of absolute acetonitrile; yet this monolith established a baseline separation of 9-peptide and 8-protein mixtures. Monolith 2 demonstrated efficient separation of the three analyte groups of different molecular weights. Six alkyl benzenes and five β-blockers were base-line separated in less than 5 and 2. min, respectively, with good resolution and very small values of peak width at half height. Moreover, a comparable performance of efficient separation of the 9-peptide mixture and a fast separation of 5- and 8-protein mixtures were achieved. Both monoliths were characterized by high mechanical strength, high permeability, and excellent reproducibility. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.