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Al-Azhar University ‎ Jāmiʻat al-Azhar , IPA: , "the Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt. Founded in 970 or 972 by the Fatimids as a centre of Islamic learning, its students studied the Qur'an and Islamic law in detail, along with logic, grammar, rhetoric, and how to calculate the lunar phases of the moon. By bringing together the study of a number of subjects in the same place it was one of the first universities in the world and the only one to survive as a modern university including secular subjects in the curriculum. It is today the chief centre of Arabic literature and Islamic learning in the world. It is the oldest degree-granting university in Egypt. In 1961 additional non-religious subjects were added to its curriculum.It is associated with Al-Azhar Mosque in Islamic Cairo. The university's mission includes the propagation of Islamic religion and culture. To this end, its Islamic scholars render edicts on disputes submitted to them from all over the Sunni Islamic world regarding proper conduct for Muslim individuals and societies. Al-Azhar also trains Egyptian government-appointed preachers in proselytization .Al-Azhar is the only university known for its superior higher degree of knowledge, Alamia, العالمية Habilitation higher doctorate. Historically, the professorial jurisprudence scientist was the most recognised stage of scholarship.Its library is considered second in importance in Egypt only to the Egyptian National Library and Archives. In May 2005, Al-Azhar in partnership with a Dubai information technology enterprise, ITEP launched the H.H. Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Project to Preserve Al Azhar Scripts and Publish Them Online with the mission of eventually providing online access to the library's entire rare manuscripts collection . Wikipedia.


Said Z.N.A.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2011

Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI), alternatively defined as occult hepatitis B (OHB), is a challenging clinical entity. It is recognized by two main characteristics: absence of HBsAg, and low viral replication. The previous two decades have witnessed a remarkable progress in our understanding of OBI and its clinical implications. Appropriate diagnostic techniques must be adopted. Sensitive HBV DNA amplification assay is the gold standard assay for detection of OBI. Viral as well as host factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of OBI. However, published data reporting the infectivity of OBI by transfusion are limited. Several aspects including OBI transmission, infectivity and its relation to the development of chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma have to be resolved. The aim of the present review is to highlight recent data on OBI with a focus on its virological diagnosis and clinical outcome. © 2011 Baishideng. All rights reserved. Source


Complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) of general composition [M(L)(H2O)2]·2H2O have been synthesized [L = N,N′-bis(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-1,1-diaminobutane]. The elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, IR, UV, NMR, SEM, EDX, thermal and EPR spectral studies of the compounds led to the conclusion that the ligand acts as a tetradentate manner. The molar conductance of the complexes in fresh solution of DMSO lies in the range of 7.46-9.13 Ω-1 cm2 mol-1 indicating their non-electrolytic behavior. On the basis of analytical and spectroscopic techniques, octahedral geometry of the complexes was proposed. The Schiff base acts as tetradentate ligand, coordinated through deprotonated phenolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms. The ligand field parameters were calculated for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes and their values were found in the range reported for a octahedral structure. The molecular parameters of the ligand and its Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been calculated. Protonation constants of Schiff base and stability constants of their binary metal complexes have been determined potentiometrically in 50% DMSO-water media at 25 °C and ionic strength 0.10 M sodium perchlorate. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of autologous blood injection in the treatment of chronic recurrent dislocation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in a prospective randomised controlled clinical study. Forty-eight patients (11 men and 37 women) with chronic recurrent dislocation of the TMJ were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 equally sized groups. Patients in the first group were treated with injection of autologous blood (ABI) alone into the superior joint space and the pericapsular tissues. Those in the second group were treated with intramaxillary fixation (IMF) alone for 4 weeks, and those in the third group were treated with ABI and IMF for 4 weeks. Interincisal distance, digital panoramic radiograph, incidence of recurrent dislocation, and pain in the TMJ were assessed postoperatively at 2 weeks and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The mean (SD) reduction in interincisal distance in the group treated with both techniques was 11.0 (1.9), which was significantly higher than in either the group treated with ABI, which was 8.5 (2.4) or IMF, which was 9.1 (2.1). The results in the ABI group and the IMF group did not differ significantly. The combined group showed the biggest decrease. The ABI alone group had the most recurrences (n = 8, which were treated by repeated injections with no recurrence after the third). The IMF alone group had only 3 and there were none in the combined group. We conclude that ABI is a simple and safe technique for the treatment of dislocation of the TMJ in the outpatient clinic. Recurrence can be overcome by multiple injections. However, the best clinical results are given by a combination of ABI and IMF. © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Source


Elzahabi H.S.A.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Thirteen novel benzazole derivatives were synthesized as possible anticancer agents. The first intermediate 1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylacetonitrile (2) was synthesized via cyclodeamination reaction of o-aminothiophenol (1) with malononitrile. Also, the second intermediate 5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazol-2- ylacetonitrile (10) was afforded via cyclocondensation reaction between 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine (9) and ethylcyanoacetate. Nucleophilic reaction of benzimidazolyl NH of compound (10) with ethylcyanoacetate afforded benzimidazolyl-3-oxopropanenitrile (11). On the other hand, methylenation of CH 2 function of compound (10) with dimethylformamide/dimethylacetal afforded benzimidazolylprop-2-enenitrile 12. The synthesis of benzothiazoylpyridines 5a,b and 8a,b as well as benzimidazolylpyridines, 14a,b and 17a-d was carried out through Michael addition of compounds 2 or 10 with arylidenemalononitriles 3a,b and 4a-d. The combination of pharmacophoric anticancer moieties, pyridine and benzazoles was the base on which target compounds 5a,b, 8a,b, 14a,b and 17a-d were designed. Among the synthesized compounds, four derivatives 10 and 17b-d were selected by National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA to be screened for their anticancer activity at a single high dose (10 -5 M) against a panel of 60 cancer cell lines. Compound 17b 4-[p-chlorophenyl]pyridine and 17d 4-[p- methoxyphenyl] pyridine exhibited a broad and moderate antitumor activity against 41 tumor cell lines belonging to the nine subpanels employed and are selected for further evaluation at five dose level screening. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source


Ali A.M.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori is associated with infantile colic. Design: Case-control study. Settings: Local tertiary hospital in rural Gizan, Saudi Arabia. Participants: A total of 55 patients with infantile colic who were 2 weeks to 4 months of age and who fulfilled modified Wessel criteria (ie, crying and fussy behavior) and a total of 30 healthy controls with no history of colic who were matched by country of origin, age, sex, and ethnicity to the 55 colicky infants. Main Outcome Measure: Helicobacter pylori infection determined by H pylori stool antigen testing. Results: Of the 55 patients presentingwith infantile colic, 45 (81.8%) tested positive for H pylori; of the 30 healthy controls, 7 (23.3%) tested positive for H pylori (odds ratio, 15.3 [95% CI, 17.9-29.8]). Conclusion: H pylori infection is associated with infantile colic and may be a causative factor. Source

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