Al - Azhar University of Egypt
Cairo, Egypt

Al-Azhar University ‎ Jāmiʻat al-Azhar , IPA: , "the Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt. Founded in 970 or 972 by the Fatimids as a centre of Islamic learning, its students studied the Qur'an and Islamic law in detail, along with logic, grammar, rhetoric, and how to calculate the lunar phases of the moon. By bringing together the study of a number of subjects in the same place it was one of the first universities in the world and the only one to survive as a modern university including secular subjects in the curriculum. It is today the chief centre of Arabic literature and Islamic learning in the world. It is the oldest degree-granting university in Egypt. In 1961 additional non-religious subjects were added to its curriculum.It is associated with Al-Azhar Mosque in Islamic Cairo. The university's mission includes the propagation of Islamic religion and culture. To this end, its Islamic scholars render edicts on disputes submitted to them from all over the Sunni Islamic world regarding proper conduct for Muslim individuals and societies. Al-Azhar also trains Egyptian government-appointed preachers in proselytization .Al-Azhar is the only university known for its superior higher degree of knowledge, Alamia, العالمية Habilitation higher doctorate. Historically, the professorial jurisprudence scientist was the most recognised stage of scholarship.Its library is considered second in importance in Egypt only to the Egyptian National Library and Archives. In May 2005, Al-Azhar in partnership with a Dubai information technology enterprise, ITEP launched the H.H. Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Project to Preserve Al Azhar Scripts and Publish Them Online with the mission of eventually providing online access to the library's entire rare manuscripts collection . Wikipedia.

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The aim of this work was to study the effect of different processing and formulation parameters on the preparation of sildenafil (SD) transfersomes utilizing the Plackett-Burman design. The drug to phospholipid molar ratio (X1), phospholipid to surfactant ratio (X2), hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of the surfactant (X3), hydration medium pH (X4), hydration time (X5) and the temperature of hydration (X6) were investigated to study their effect on the vesicle size (Y1) and entrapment efficiency (EE) of the drug (Y2). The preparation conditions were optimized to minimize the vesicle size and maximize the EE. The prepared transfersomes were also subjected to zeta potential measurements, morphological and physicochemical characterization. The combinations of factors that achieve the optimum desirability were identified. An optimized formulation was prepared and characterized once more for its vesicle size, EE, in vitro permeation and deformability index. The results revealed that both X3 and X6 had a pronounced effect on Y1, while X1 and X4 showed a significant effect on Y2. Morphological and physicochemical study confirmed the transfersomes spherical shape and compatibility of the formulation ingredients. The formulation with optimum desirability showed EE and vesicle size of 97.21% and 610 nm, respectively. In vitro permeation of the drug-loaded transfersome showed more than 5-fold higher permeation rate compared with drug suspension. Deformability index verified elasticity of the preparation. The significant variables could be optimized again to produce smaller vesicle size that could increase SD permeation from transdermal delivery systems loaded drug optimized transfersomes. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Ahmed T.A.,King Abdulaziz University | Ahmed T.A.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt | Aljaeid B.M.,King Abdulaziz University
Drug Design, Development and Therapy | Year: 2016

Naturally occurring polymers, particularly of the polysaccharide type, have been used pharmaceutically for the delivery of a wide variety of therapeutic agents. Chitosan, the second abundant naturally occurring polysaccharide next to cellulose, is a biocompatible and biodegradable mucoadhesive polymer that has been extensively used in the preparation of micro- as well as nanoparticles. The prepared particles have been exploited as a potential carrier for different therapeutic agents such as peptides, proteins, vaccines, DNA, and drugs for parenteral and nonparenteral administration. Therapeutic agent-loaded chitosan micro- or nanoparticles were found to be more stable, permeable, and bioactive. In this review, we are highlighting the different methods of preparation and characterization of chitosan micro- and nanoparticles, while reviewing the pharmaceutical applications of these particles in drug delivery. Moreover, the roles of chitosan derivatives and chitosan metal nanoparticles in drug delivery have been illustrated. © 2016 Ahmed and Aljaeid.

Abdel-Aziem A.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objective: Green chemistry is the approach for synthesizing and using of chemicals that minimize risks to human and to the environments. The aim of this study describes the synthesis of some new thiadiazole, pyrazole and coumarin derivatives bearing benzofuran moiety by conventional, solvent free conditions (grindstone) and evaluating their antimicrobial effect.Methods: Interaction of benzofuran derivative with different reagents under both grinding and conventional conditions.Results: A facile, rapid and eco-friendly route with good yield for the synthesis of new thiadiazole, coumarin and pyrazole derivatives by grinding the reactants was reported. The structure of newly synthesized compounds was elucidated from spectral data (IR, NMR and mass). The investigation of antifungal and antibacterial screening data revealed that some of the tested compounds show moderate to low activities.Conclusion: 3-(benzofuran-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde was utilized as key intermediate for the synthesis of some new heterocycles, namely 2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazole, pyrazole and coumarin derivatives under both grinding and convenential conditions. Most of the newly synthesized products revealed moderate activity against the tested microorganisms. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. All Rights Reserved.

Said Z.N.A.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2011

Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI), alternatively defined as occult hepatitis B (OHB), is a challenging clinical entity. It is recognized by two main characteristics: absence of HBsAg, and low viral replication. The previous two decades have witnessed a remarkable progress in our understanding of OBI and its clinical implications. Appropriate diagnostic techniques must be adopted. Sensitive HBV DNA amplification assay is the gold standard assay for detection of OBI. Viral as well as host factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of OBI. However, published data reporting the infectivity of OBI by transfusion are limited. Several aspects including OBI transmission, infectivity and its relation to the development of chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma have to be resolved. The aim of the present review is to highlight recent data on OBI with a focus on its virological diagnosis and clinical outcome. © 2011 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

Elzahabi H.S.A.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Thirteen novel benzazole derivatives were synthesized as possible anticancer agents. The first intermediate 1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylacetonitrile (2) was synthesized via cyclodeamination reaction of o-aminothiophenol (1) with malononitrile. Also, the second intermediate 5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazol-2- ylacetonitrile (10) was afforded via cyclocondensation reaction between 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine (9) and ethylcyanoacetate. Nucleophilic reaction of benzimidazolyl NH of compound (10) with ethylcyanoacetate afforded benzimidazolyl-3-oxopropanenitrile (11). On the other hand, methylenation of CH 2 function of compound (10) with dimethylformamide/dimethylacetal afforded benzimidazolylprop-2-enenitrile 12. The synthesis of benzothiazoylpyridines 5a,b and 8a,b as well as benzimidazolylpyridines, 14a,b and 17a-d was carried out through Michael addition of compounds 2 or 10 with arylidenemalononitriles 3a,b and 4a-d. The combination of pharmacophoric anticancer moieties, pyridine and benzazoles was the base on which target compounds 5a,b, 8a,b, 14a,b and 17a-d were designed. Among the synthesized compounds, four derivatives 10 and 17b-d were selected by National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA to be screened for their anticancer activity at a single high dose (10 -5 M) against a panel of 60 cancer cell lines. Compound 17b 4-[p-chlorophenyl]pyridine and 17d 4-[p- methoxyphenyl] pyridine exhibited a broad and moderate antitumor activity against 41 tumor cell lines belonging to the nine subpanels employed and are selected for further evaluation at five dose level screening. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Inhorn M.C.,Yale University | Serour G.I.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt
The Lancet | Year: 2011

Islam is the world's second largest religion, representing nearly a quarter of the global population. Here, we assess how Islam as a religious system shapes medical practice, and how Muslims view and experience medical care. Islam has generally encouraged the use of science and biomedicine for the alleviation of suffering, with Islamic authorities having a crucial supportive role. Muslim patients are encouraged to seek medical solutions to their health problems. For example, Muslim couples who are infertile throughout the world are permitted to use assisted reproductive technologies. We focus on the USA, assessing how Islamic attitudes toward medicine influence Muslims' engagement with the US health-care system. Nowadays, the Arab-Muslim population is one of the fastest growing ethnic-minority populations in the USA. However, since Sept 11, 2001, Arab-Muslim patients - and particularly the growing Iraqi refugee population - face huge challenges in seeking and receiving medical care, including care that is judged to be religiously appropriate. We assess some of the barriers to care - ie, poverty, language, and discrimination. Arab-Muslim patients' religious concerns also suggest the need for cultural competence and sensitivity on the part of health-care practitioners. Here, we emphasise how Islamic conventions might affect clinical care, and make recommendations to improve health-care access and services for Arab-Muslim refugees and immigrants, and Muslim patients in general. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ali A.M.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori is associated with infantile colic. Design: Case-control study. Settings: Local tertiary hospital in rural Gizan, Saudi Arabia. Participants: A total of 55 patients with infantile colic who were 2 weeks to 4 months of age and who fulfilled modified Wessel criteria (ie, crying and fussy behavior) and a total of 30 healthy controls with no history of colic who were matched by country of origin, age, sex, and ethnicity to the 55 colicky infants. Main Outcome Measure: Helicobacter pylori infection determined by H pylori stool antigen testing. Results: Of the 55 patients presentingwith infantile colic, 45 (81.8%) tested positive for H pylori; of the 30 healthy controls, 7 (23.3%) tested positive for H pylori (odds ratio, 15.3 [95% CI, 17.9-29.8]). Conclusion: H pylori infection is associated with infantile colic and may be a causative factor.

Awad A.S.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2011

The combined effects of curcumin and candesartan were investigated in brain ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (MCAO). Male mice were classified into 5 groups. The mice were killed 24 hours after MCAO, and each group was divided into 2 halves. In one half, brain homogenate was collected for antioxidant enzyme activity determination, and in the other half, samples were obtained for red color intensity determination in brain slices. The untreated group exhibited significantly reduced cerebral blood flow, increased lipid peroxide levels and heart rate, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, and reduced red color intensity compared with the sham group. Combination treatment with curcumin and candesartan significantly restored SOD and GST activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, heart rate, blood flow, and red color intensity compared with the untreated group. The use of each drug alone significantly restored SOD and blood flow compared with the sham and untreated groups, heart rate decreased with curcumin alone, and red color intensity and nitric oxide level increased with candesartan alone. These results indicate that curcumin synergistically enhances the inhibitory action of candesartan on brain ischemia through suppression of blood flow changes and oxidative stress via antioxidant properties, suggesting beneficial combined effects of curcumin and candesartan on ischemic brain damage. © 2011 by National Stroke Association.

Ragab E.M.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery | Year: 2010

Background: Planter fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain in adults. Many treatment options exist. Most of patients resolve with conservative management. Approximately 10% of patients develop persistent and often disabling symptoms. Patients and methods: This prospective study includes 37 patients with an established diagnosis of chronic plantar fasciitis, aiming to compare two different techniques of treatment. First group includes 17 patients with a mean age of 42 years treated by endoscopic plantar fasciotomy (EPF); the mean follow-up was 11 months. Second group includes 20 patients with a mean age of 45 years treated by extracorporeal shock Wave Therapy (ESWT); the mean follow-up was 7.6 months. Results: In the first group (EPF), using the visual analog scale the average post-operative pain was improved from 9.1 to 1.6. Post-operatively, 58.8% had no limitation of functional activities, 35.3% had minimal limitation of activities and 5.9% had moderate limitation of activities. Concerning patient satisfaction, 82.3% of patients were completely satisfied, 11.8% of patients were satisfied with reservation and 5.9% of patients were unsatisfied. For the second group (ESWT), using the visual analog scale the average post-operative pain was improved from 9 to 2.1. Post-operatively, 50% had no functional limitation of activities, 35% had minimal limitation of activities, 10% had moderate limitation of activities, and 5% had severe limitation of activities. Concerning patient satisfaction, 75% of patients were completely satisfied and 25% were satisfied with reservation or unsatisfied. Conclusion: Because of better results with endoscopic release versus the benefits of no complications, no immobilization, and early resumption of full activities with ESWT, we conclude that ESWT is a reasonable earlier line of treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis before EPF. © 2009 The Author(s).

Mayhoub M.S.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2014

The innovative daylighting systems (IDS) seek to meet the illumination requirements in buildings, where inadequate amount of daylight is provided by the conventional daylighting systems. Many IDS have been commercially launched, but challenges, such as high initial cost, utilization difficulties, and application limitations, prevent their widespread use. Most of these challenges can be overcome, but no IDS are likely to overcome all of them at once. Alternatively, a number of systems that efficiently suit different circumstances is a more practical approaches. This study reviews the IDS whether commercially released or not, and discusses the challenges associated with their utilization within buildings. Solutions and recommendations have been suggested. The study makes the capabilities and limitations of the different IDS clearer for both architects and users, and discusses the challenges and promises facing developers and lighting designers. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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