Ahmad F.,Hashemite University |
Farouk S.,Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute |
Abd El-Moghny M.W.,Al Azahr University
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association | Year: 2014
Facies analyses and a sequence stratigraphical framework with regional correlation of the upper Campanian phosphate province are presented, based on three main sections located in Egypt (Gebel Duwi and Abu Tartur sections) and north Jordan (Umm Qais section). Fifteen facies types were grouped into: phosphate (FT1-5), carbonate (FT6-11) and siliciclastic (FT12-15) facies associations. The main component of phosphate rocks is pellets in situ and common reworked biogenic debris, especially in the upper phosphate beds (e.g. fish teeth and bones), which along with abundant Thalassinoides burrows suggests that the skeletal material was the main source for phosphates in Egypt; in contrast the common authigenic phosphatic grains (pristine) in Jordan reflect an upwelling regime. Based on age assignment as well as stratigraphical position, the phosphorite beds show great similarity that may suggests a similar origin and proximity during the period of deposition of the Duwi Formation of the Red Sea coast of Egypt and its equivalent, the Al-Hisa Phosphorite Formation in Jordan, which represents an early transgressive system tract of a depositional sequence. On the Abu Tartur plateau, the presence of sandy pyritic phosphatic grainstone (FT1) and glauconitic quartz arenite (FT12) in the middle part of the studied section, along with the absence of chert facies (FT14), reflects a more shallow marine depositional environment with increased fluvial sediment supply compared to those along the Red Sea coast and north Jordan. © 2014 The Geologists' Association.
Hassan M.H.,Taibah University |
Hassan M.H.,Al Azahr University |
Edfawy M.,Egyptian Russian University |
Mansour A.,Al Azahr University |
Hamed A.-A.,Al Azahr University
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2012
The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective utility of capsaicin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury and to explore the possible mechanisms whereby this agent mediated its beneficial effects. We randomized 40 rats into four groups for treatment with corn oil, CCl4, capsaicin and both CCl4 and capsaicin, respectively, for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and used for determination of aspartylaminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin, while the liver tissues were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin examination; evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and active caspase-3 contents; and evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Animals treated with CCl4 exhibited significant elevation in AST, ALT, total bilirubin and caspase-3 and exhibited significant decrease in activities of SOD, CAT, GST and GSH contents. The combination (both capsaicin and CCl4) group has preserved the liver histology, liver enzymes and bilirubin close to normal, exhibited significant induction in the activities of CAT, SOD and GST, increased the liver content of GSH and active caspase-3 and conversely showed significant decrease in liver MDA content compared to CCl4 challenged rats. Capsaicin confers an appealing hepatoprotective effect which might be explained partially via diminishing the generation of MDA, induction of antioxidant systems and inhibition of active caspase-3. © The Author(s) 2011.