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Kenitra, Morocco

Al Akhawayn University is a university located in Ifrane, Morocco, 70 kilometers from the imperial city of Fes, in the midst of the Middle Atlas Mountains.The creation of Al Akhawayn University was largely funded by the King of Saudi Arabia from a large endowment intended for the cleanup of an oil spill off the coast of Morocco. However, the cleanup was never realized as the wind blew the oil spill away and the endowment was used to create the university. Al Akhawayn University was founded by Royal Decree in 1993 and officially inaugurated by the former King Hassan II of Morocco), on January 16, 1995. Wikipedia.

El Boukili A.,Al Akhawayn University
27th European Modeling and Simulation Symposium, EMSS 2015 | Year: 2015

Mechanical stress is the main performance booster for the new generation of nano CMOS transistors. Then, accurate models to calculate this stress are requested. In this paper, we are proposing new and accurate mathematical model to calculate numerically and correctly the thermal induced stress in the new generation of Intel nano PMOSFETs. In this model, we are taking into account, for the first time, the effects of the fabrication temperature on the elastic constants of Silicon and Silicon Germanium materials to calculate the thermal stress. Numerical results from different simulations with different temperatures for thermal induced stress in 14 nm Intel nano PMOS of the year 2014 will be given, discussed, and compared with literature. Source

El Boukili A.,Al Akhawayn University
COMPEL - The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering | Year: 2014

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a new three dimension physically based model to calculate the initial stress in silicon germanium (SiGe) film due to thermal mismatch after deposition. We should note that there are many other sources of initial stress in SiGe films or in the substrate. Here, the author is focussing only on how to model the initial stress arising from thermal mismatch in SiGe film. The author uses this initial stress to calculate numerically the resulting extrinsic stress distribution in a nanoscale PMOS transistor. This extrinsic stress is used by industrials and manufacturers as Intel or IBM to boost the performances of the nanoscale PMOS and NMOS transistors. It is now admitted that compressive stress enhances the mobility of holes and tensile stress enhances the mobility of electrons in the channel. Design/methodology/approach - During thermal processing, thin film materials like polysilicon, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, or SiGe expand or contract at different rates compared to the silicon substrate according to their thermal expansion coefficients. The author defines the thermal expansion coefficient as the rate of change of strain with respect to temperature. Findings - Several numerical experiments have been used for different temperatures ranging from 30 to 1,0001C. These experiments did show that the temperature affects strongly the extrinsic stress in the channel of a 45 nm PMOS transistor. On the other hand, the author has compared the extrinsic stress due to lattice mismatch with the extrinsic stress due to thermal mismatch. The author found that these two types of stress have the same order (see the numerical results on Figures 4 and 12). And, these are great findings for semiconductor industry. Practical implications - Front-end process induced extrinsic stress is used by manufacturers of nanoscale transistors as the new scaling vector for the 90 nm node technology and below. The extrinsic stress has the advantage of improving the performances of PMOSFETs and NMOSFETs transistors by enhancing mobility. This mobility enhancement fundamentally results from alteration of electronic band structure of silicon due to extrinsic stress. Then, the results are of great importance to manufacturers and industrials. The evidence is that these results show that the extrinsic stress in the channel depends also on the thermal mismatch between materials and not only on the material mismatch. Originality/value - The model the author is proposing to calculate the initial stress due to thermal mismatch is novel and original. The author validated the values of the initial stress with those obtained by experiments in Al-Bayati et al. (2005). Using the uniaxial stress generation technique of Intel (see Figure 2). Al-Bayati et al. (2005) found experimentally that for 17 percent germanium concentration, a compressive initial stress of 1.4 GPa is generated inside the SiGe layer. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Salih-Alj Y.,Al Akhawayn University | Despins C.,Prompt Inc | Affes S.,INRS EMT
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2011

This paper presents an Ultra-Wideband (UWB) computationally-efficient fast acquisition system suggested for ranging in indoor, Line-Of-Sight (LOS) environments. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated and its implementation issues are discussed. The design complexity leverages field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to implement the parallel processing concept. Timing acquisition at high sampling rates of the ultra-short pulses used in UWB communications can be costly and slow for ranging. This is due to the large number of required operations in an intensive software-based signal processing. The proposed UWB scheme in this paper uses an efficient block-processing technique that simplifies hardware implementation with a greatly reduced number of operations and acquisition time, while also offering accurate ranging capabilities over the considered indoor channel at high levels of multiple-user interference (MUI) and Gaussian noise. © 2006 IEEE. Source

El Fels L.,Cadi Ayyad University | Zamama M.,Cadi Ayyad University | El Asli A.,Al Akhawayn University | Hafidi M.,Cadi Ayyad University
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2014

The co-composting of activated sludge and lignocellulosic waste (palm tree waste) was monitored to study the evolution of two mixtures, referred to as A (2/3 palm waste+1/3 sludge) and B (1/2 palm waste+1/2 sludge) for 6mo. The biotransformation during the co-composting process was evaluated by physicochemical and spectroscopy analyses. The final composts exhibited a higher degree of decomposition than the controls as shown by a decrease of C/N and NH4+/NO3- ratios, and a 43% decrease in total lipid content. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands at 2964, 2922, and 2850 cm-1 and the increase of structure aromatic absorbance bands at 1514, 1426, and 1386 cm-1 reflect the progress of the humification process, which judging by the increase in the humification index, is about 60%. This efficiency of co-composting in reducing phytotoxicity was confirmed by the germination index, which reached over 90%, and by metallic trace element concentration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ross E.,Al Akhawayn University
Urban Studies | Year: 2011

The Muslim holy city of Touba, self-defined 'capital' of the Murid Sufi order in Senegal, is increasingly thriving on its global connectedness. This article situates the phenomenon of Touba's globalisation within current literature on the global city and world city networks. It assesses four of the processes through which the holy city's values and structures are diffusing across the global North. First, the universality of Touba in Murid historiography is considered. Secondly, the diffusion of the toponym 'Touba', through the naming of expatriate associations and institutions, is analysed. Thirdly, the types and distribution of businesses set up in the US by Murids is assessed. Fourthly, the diffusion of typical Murid images is discussed as they too contribute to Touba's international renown. © 2010 Urban Studies Journal Limited. Source

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