Al Akhawayn University is a university located in Ifrane, Morocco, 70 kilometers from the imperial city of Fes, in the midst of the Middle Atlas Mountains.The creation of Al Akhawayn University was largely funded by the King of Saudi Arabia from a large endowment intended for the cleanup of an oil spill off the coast of Morocco. However, the cleanup was never realized as the wind blew the oil spill away and the endowment was used to create the university. Al Akhawayn University was founded by Royal Decree in 1993 and officially inaugurated by the former King Hassan II of Morocco), on January 16, 1995. Wikipedia.
El Boukili A.,Al Akhawayn University
COMPEL - The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering | Year: 2017
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply accurate and original models to understand and analyze the effects of the fabrication temperatures on thermal-induced stress and speed performance of nano positively doped metal oxide semiconductor (pMOS) transistors. Design/methodology/approach - The speed performances of nano pMOS transistors depend strongly on the mobility of holes, which itself depends on the thermal-induced extrinsic stress σ. The author uses a finite volume method to solve the proposed system of partial differential equations needed to calculate the thermal-induced stress σ accurately. Findings - The thermal extrinsic stress σ depends strongly on the thermal intrinsic stress σ0, thermal intrinsic strain σ0, elastic constants C11 and C12 and the fabrication temperatures. In literature, the effects of fabrication temperatures on C11 and C12 needed to calculate thermal-induced stressσ0 have been ignored. The new finding is that if the effects of fabrication temperatures on C11 and C12 are ignored, then, the values of stress σ0 and σ will be overestimated and, then, not accurate. Another important finding is that the speed performance of nano pMOS transistors will increase if the fabrication temperature of silicon-germanium films used as stressors is increased. Practical implications - To predict correctly the thermal-induced stress and speed performance of nano pMOS transistors, the effects of fabrication temperatures on the elastic constants required to calculate the thermal-induced intrinsic stress σ0 should be taken into account. Originality/value - There are three levels of originalities. The author considers the effects of the fabrication temperatures on extrinsic stress σ, intrinsic stress σ0 and elastic constants C11 and C12. © 2016 Emerald Publishing Limited.
El Fels L.,Cadi Ayyad University |
Zamama M.,Cadi Ayyad University |
El Asli A.,Al Akhawayn University |
Hafidi M.,Cadi Ayyad University
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2014
The co-composting of activated sludge and lignocellulosic waste (palm tree waste) was monitored to study the evolution of two mixtures, referred to as A (2/3 palm waste+1/3 sludge) and B (1/2 palm waste+1/2 sludge) for 6mo. The biotransformation during the co-composting process was evaluated by physicochemical and spectroscopy analyses. The final composts exhibited a higher degree of decomposition than the controls as shown by a decrease of C/N and NH4+/NO3- ratios, and a 43% decrease in total lipid content. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands at 2964, 2922, and 2850 cm-1 and the increase of structure aromatic absorbance bands at 1514, 1426, and 1386 cm-1 reflect the progress of the humification process, which judging by the increase in the humification index, is about 60%. This efficiency of co-composting in reducing phytotoxicity was confirmed by the germination index, which reached over 90%, and by metallic trace element concentration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INT-07-2015 | Award Amount: 2.40M | Year: 2016
The Middle East and North Africa Regional Architecture: mapping geopolitical shifts, regional order and domestic transformations -the MENARA Project- will study the geopolitical order in the making in the South and East Mediterranean Countries and the Middle East amid all deep-reaching social and political changes unfolding since 2010. The project aims at describing the main features of the regional geopolitical order, its origins, and evolution; identifying and mapping the decisive domestic, regional and global actors, dynamics and trends; building future scenarios for 2025 and 2040; and informing EU policies and strategies. It will examine whether, where and when conflict and/or cohesion dynamics prevail, the level and depth of regional fragmentation and the effects of regional and domestic processes on global dynamics and vice versa. This will be achieved by analysing ideational and material factors (national, sub and supra-national identities; religion and politics; global identities; demography; energy; economy; military; environment) and by conducting in-depth research on specific case studies on ongoing dynamics at three different levels (domestic, regional and global). All this research will be based on quantitative and qualitative methods -including fact finding missions on the ground, interviews, focus groups, Delphi surveys - and innovative foresight techniques. Research will be accompanied by pioneering dissemination methods willing to increase the projects impact not only over the specific academic community and policy-making circles but also over broader general public. This will include the translation of research results into accessible deliverables such as audio-visuals, futures notes series, infographics and interactive maps, and a Massive Open Online Course.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: ENERGY.2013.2.9.1 | Award Amount: 6.30M | Year: 2013
The scientific targets of the EUROSUNMED project are the development of new technologies in three energy field areas, namely photovoltaics (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP) and grid integration (GI), in strong collaboration with research institutes, universities and SMEs from Europe in the north side of the Mediterranean sea and from Morocco and Egypt from the south of the sea. The focus in PV will be on thin film (Si, CZTS) based solar cells and modules while the goal in CSP field is to design and test new heliostats as well as novel solutions for energy storage compatible with these technologies. The project aims at producing components that will be tested under specific conditions of MPC (hot climate, absence of water, etc.). Such investigations are complemented with studies on grid integration of energy sources from PV and CSP in Morocco and Egypt context. Additionally, the consortium envisages to train PhD students and Post-Docs in these interdisciplinary fields in a close and fruitful collaboration between academic institutions and industry from EU and MPCs. The consortium is well placed around leading academic groups in materials science and engineering devices and equipments for the development of PV and CSP, and also in the promotion of the renewable energies in general. Moreover, technology transfer and research infrastructure development in the targeted areas will be provided. Disseminating the results of the projects will be done through the organization of summer schools, workshops and conferences towards large public from universities, engineering schools and stakeholders involved in the three selected energy areas and beyond. Another outreach of the project will be the proposal for a roadmap on the technological aspects (research, industry, implementation) of the PV, CSP and grid area as well as on the best practice for the continuation of strong collaboration between the EU and MPCS partners and beyond for for mutual interest and benefits.
El Boukili A.,Al Akhawayn University
27th European Modeling and Simulation Symposium, EMSS 2015 | Year: 2015
Mechanical stress is the main performance booster for the new generation of nano CMOS transistors. Then, accurate models to calculate this stress are requested. In this paper, we are proposing new and accurate mathematical model to calculate numerically and correctly the thermal induced stress in the new generation of Intel nano PMOSFETs. In this model, we are taking into account, for the first time, the effects of the fabrication temperature on the elastic constants of Silicon and Silicon Germanium materials to calculate the thermal stress. Numerical results from different simulations with different temperatures for thermal induced stress in 14 nm Intel nano PMOS of the year 2014 will be given, discussed, and compared with literature.
Salih-Alj Y.,Al Akhawayn University |
Despins C.,Prompt Inc. |
Affes S.,INRS EMT
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2011
This paper presents an Ultra-Wideband (UWB) computationally-efficient fast acquisition system suggested for ranging in indoor, Line-Of-Sight (LOS) environments. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated and its implementation issues are discussed. The design complexity leverages field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to implement the parallel processing concept. Timing acquisition at high sampling rates of the ultra-short pulses used in UWB communications can be costly and slow for ranging. This is due to the large number of required operations in an intensive software-based signal processing. The proposed UWB scheme in this paper uses an efficient block-processing technique that simplifies hardware implementation with a greatly reduced number of operations and acquisition time, while also offering accurate ranging capabilities over the considered indoor channel at high levels of multiple-user interference (MUI) and Gaussian noise. © 2006 IEEE.
Darhmaoui H.,Al Akhawayn University |
Lahjouji D.,Al Akhawayn University
Energy Procedia | Year: 2013
This paper inspects the different parameters that intervene in the determination of the optimal tilt angle for maximum solar energy collection. It proposes a method for calculating the optimal tilt angle based upon the values of the daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. A computer program using the mathematical model to calculate the solar radiation incident on an inclined surface as a function of the tilt angle is implemented. Four years data of daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface in 35 sites in different countries of the Mediterranean region is used. The program assumes a due south orientation of the collectors and it determines the optimal tilt angle for maximum solar radiation collection for sites in the Mediterranean region. A regression analysis using the results of the computer simulation is conducted to develop a latitude based tilt angle optimization mathematical model for maximum solar radiation collection for the sites. We tested both a linear and a quadratic model (of the form ax2+bx) for representing the relationship between the annual optimal tilt angle and the site's latitude. The quadratic model is better; it provides very high prediction accuracy. 99.87% of the variation in the annual optimal tilt angle is explained by the variability in site's latitude with an average residual angle of only 0.96° for all 35 sites studied. It also gives an average percentage decrease in the annual solar radiation of only 0.016% when compared with actual optimal tilt angles. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ross E.,Al Akhawayn University
Urban Studies | Year: 2011
The Muslim holy city of Touba, self-defined 'capital' of the Murid Sufi order in Senegal, is increasingly thriving on its global connectedness. This article situates the phenomenon of Touba's globalisation within current literature on the global city and world city networks. It assesses four of the processes through which the holy city's values and structures are diffusing across the global North. First, the universality of Touba in Murid historiography is considered. Secondly, the diffusion of the toponym 'Touba', through the naming of expatriate associations and institutions, is analysed. Thirdly, the types and distribution of businesses set up in the US by Murids is assessed. Fourthly, the diffusion of typical Murid images is discussed as they too contribute to Touba's international renown. © 2010 Urban Studies Journal Limited.
Kissani I.,Al Akhawayn University
Proceedings of 2013 International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference, IRSEC 2013 | Year: 2013
To remain competitive in global markets, where customers request more eco-friendly products, international companies are forced to operate at their lowest cost while tailoring their products to customers' changing needs and sticking to recurring changes on environmental regulations. Provided that energy consumption goes together with CO2 emissions and high production costs, multinational companies seek perpetually to implement the best practices in an effort to satisfy customers not in terms of fair prices, quality and quantity delivered but also in terms of delivering products that respect environmental regulations. It seems that it is no longer optional for companies to opt for environmental practices, while having two major reasons to remain cost efficient and customer seductive: their production processes will no more tolerate waste in energy and their customers are consciously more than ever seeking eco-friendly products. In this paper, we conduct a cost analysis based on a comparison traditional with eco-friendly technologies in manufacturing detergent products based on different sources of energy. © 2013 IEEE.
El Boukili A.,Al Akhawayn University
Proceedings of 2015 International Conference on Electrical and Information Technologies, ICEIT 2015 | Year: 2015
In this paper, we are developing new analytical models based on exponential function to calculate the thermal expansion coefficient of Silicon Germanium thin films for low and high temperatures. These new models are more accurate than polynomial based models. And, they take into account the effects of temperature and Germanium mole fraction. This thermal expansion coefficient is used to calculate the thermal induced intrinsic stress in Silicon Germanium thin films after deposition. And, this intrinsic stress is used to calculate and simulate numerically the resulting extrinsic stress in the channel of an Intel nano PMOSFET transistor. Validation of these models using available experimental data and channel stress will be discussed and analyzed according to literature. © 2015 IEEE.