Al Ain University of Science and Technology (AAU, in Arabic:جامعة العين للعلوم والتكنولوجيا was established in 2004 and is located in the city of Al Ain, within the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Wikipedia.
Alomar M.J.,Al Ain University of Science and Technology
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal | Year: 2014
Objectives: To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources: A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary: Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion: Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. © 2013 King Saud University.
Arafat M.,Al Ain University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014
Objectives: To develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of diltiazem hydrochloride (DLZ) in human plasma.Methods: Mixture of n-hexane and 2-propanol (96:4, ratio) was added to plasma at sample preparation time followed by centrifuging the samples. The obtained upper organic layer was transferred and evaporated to dryness. The residue was reconstituted with a mobile phase and the supernatant was then injected onto the column. The mobile phase used was consisted of 0.2 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, acetonitrile, isopropyl alcohol and triethylamine (55:43:1.7:0.3, v/v) with pH adjusted to 4.5 using 85% phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 0.7 ml/min. UV detector set at 240 nm and samples were quantified using peak area.Results: A well-resolved DLZ peak and free of interference from endogenous compounds in plasma with a retention time of 6.03 min was achieved. Recovery of DLZ was satisfactory (≥ 91.3%) over the concentration range tested 0.25 - 20 μg/ml. LOD of this assay was 0.125 μg/ml and LOQ was 0.25 μg/ml and, at this concentration, intra- and inter-day CV were 6.8 and 9.2 %, respectively. DLZ was found to be stable in plasma after storage at -80ºC, over 90 days.Conclusion: The HPLC method described in this article was simple, sensitive, selective, reproducible, linear, precise, accurate, stability indicating and requires only a small sample volume, lending it suitable for the determination of DLZ concentration in routine measurements for pharmacokinetic/bioavailability studies. © 2014, IJPPS. All rights reserved.
Arafat M.,Al Ain University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015
The present article contains a brief review of various formulation approaches used in controlled release drug delivery systems, the role of polymers in the controlled delivery of many fast release drugs and the mechanism of drug release from these polymeric matrices. The oral controlled release system of many drugs has been known to be an essential part of formulation development in drug delivery systems. It has been the focus of pharmaceutical research for many years due to its various advantages over conventional dosage forms. Administering the drug for release in the blood at a controlled rate, to maintain relatively constant drug levels in plasma over a controlled period of time, can overcome many problems associated with conventional dosage forms. The applicability of these dosage forms is due to reduction in the frequencies of drug dosing, which lead to patient convenience and compliance. In addition, a reduction of wide fluctuations in plasma drug concentration peak can be obtained. As a result, toxicity and poor efficacy can be avoided, especially with drugs of narrow therapeutic indices. Such problems, associated with conventional dosage forms of many drugs, can be overcome by using controlled release drug delivery systems, to deliver the drug for absorption at a controlled rate over an extended period of time. The controlled release dosage form should be tailored so that variations in the components can lead to predictable alterations in the drug release profiles. Various controlled release drug delivery systems have different mechanisms to control the drug release rate, such as the osmotic pump, ion exchange resin and matrix systems which have been widely utilized as controlled release drug delivery approaches. Besides, polymers have often been used in the components of controlled release drug delivery systems. A sustained release profile, without occurring of the dose dumping, and sufficient bioavailability can be achieved when a drug is embedded in some polymeric materials such as gelucires. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science.
Sadek B.,United Arab Emirates University |
Saad A.,United Arab Emirates University |
Sadeq A.,Al Ain University of Science and Technology |
Jalal F.,United Arab Emirates University |
Stark H.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2016
The potential contributions of the brain histaminergic system in neurodegenerative diseases, and the possiblity of histamine-targeting treatments is attracting considerable interests. The histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is expressed mainly in the central nervous system, and is, consequently, an attractive pharmacological target. Although recently described clinical trials have been disappointing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia (SCH), numerous H3R antagonists, including pitolisant, demonstrate potential in the treatment of narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness associated with cognitive impairment, epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review focuses on the recent preclinical as well as clinical results that support the relevance of H3R antagonists for the treatment of cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases, namely AD, epilepsy and SCH. The review summarizes the role of histaminergic neurotransmission with focus on these brain disorders, as well as the effects of numerous H3R antagonists on animal models and humans. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Ghandour A.,Al Ain University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies | Year: 2015
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) continue to struggle to measure the success of their website. This results in ineffective eCommerce activities and the consequent disappointment in recognisable benefits. There is a need for a website operational model offering managers the ability to understand the payoffs from their investment. This paper presents an empirically proven intuitive eCommerce website operational model that offers managers a comprehensive way of understanding their website operation. The model premise is simple: the achievement of operational excellence will lead to improved financial performance. The central task for managers, then, lies in understanding what drives operational excellence and then committing the necessary resources to the development of the drivers. Managerial implications stemming from the empirical findings are also discussed.
Al-Tabakha M.M.,Al Ain University of Science and Technology
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2015
The current review was designed to compare between the insulin inhalation systems Exubera and Afrezza and to investigate the reasons why Exubera was unsuccessful, when Afrezza maker is expecting their product to be felicitous. In January 2006, Pfizer secured FDA and EC approval for the first of its kind, regular insulin through Exubera inhaler device for the management of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in adults. The product was no longer available to the market after less than two years from its approval triggering a setback for competitive new inhalable insulins that were already in various clinical development phases. In contrary, MannKind Corporation started developing its ultra-rapid-acting insulin Afrezza in a bold bid, probably by managing the issues in which Exubera was not successful. Afrezza has been marketed since February, 2015 by Sanofi after getting FDA approval in June 2014. The results from this systematic review indicate the effectiveness of insulin inhalation products, particularly for patients initiating insulin therapy. Pharmaceutical companies should capitalize on the information available from insulin inhalation to produce competitive products that are able to match the bioavailability of subcutaneous (SC) insulin injection and to deal with the single insulin unit increments and basal insulin requirements in some diabetic patients or extending the horizon to inhalable drug products with completely different drug entities for other indications. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Al-Tabakha M.M.,Al Ain University of Science and Technology
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2010
Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is employed for a wide variety of pharmaceutical and food preparations. Its applications as viscolizing agent (thickening agent), coating polymer, bioadhesive, in solid dispersion to enhance solubility, binder in the process of granulation and in modified release formulations have been well documented. One other notable use is in the production of capsule shells, replacing the animal derived gelatin in conventional two-piece capsules. The aim of this review is to systemically survey published literature on the HPMC use in capsule shells and resolve questions regarding their suitability as a replacement for hardgelatin capsules. Future refinements in the production and filling of HPMC capsule shells and improvement in their in vivo/in vitro dissolution would ensure their superiority over hard gelatin capsules.
Sadek B.,Al Ain University of Science and Technology |
Fahelelbom K.M.S.,Al Ain University of Science and Technology
Molecules | Year: 2011
A series of 1,3-oxazole, 1,3-thiazole, isomeric 1,2,4-oxadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, and 1,2,3,4-tetrazole heterocycles was synthesized. All the compounds shared as a common feature the presence of a 4-hydroxyphenyl substituent. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by MS, 1H-NMR, and elemental analysis. In vitro antimicrobial activity for all the newly synthesized compounds at concentrations of 200-25 μg/mL was evaluated against Gram+ve organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Gram-ve organisms such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), and the fungal strain Aspergillus niger (A. niger) by the cup plate method. Ofloxacin and ketoconazole (10 μg/mL) were used as reference standards for antibacterial and antifungal activity, respectively. Compounds 15, 16, and 20 showed notable antibacterial and antifungal activities at higher concentrations (200 μg/mL), whereas 17-19 were found to display significant antibacterial or antifungal activity (25-50 μg/mL) against the Gram+ve, Gram-ve bacteria, or fungal cells used in the present study. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Sadek B.,Al Ain University of Science and Technology
Der Pharma Chemica | Year: 2011
Nowadays, multi-medicament use is increasing in clinical practice, especially, in the treatment of elder patients. Therefore, the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction of medicaments, which are expected to be co administrated in clinical practice, seems to be significant. The present review provides an update for the relationship between type of chemical substitution (aliphatic or aromatic) of imdazole-containig drugs and their tendency to affect hepatic metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP). In the present review, examples of different therapeutically used imidazole-containing drugs are highlighted to support the first evidence regarding the relationship between CYP-inhibition and chemistry of imidazole ring system. The informations provided throughout this article are intended to improve the medicinal chemist's knowledge of imidazole-containig drugs that are therapeutically widely applied as agents including histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antiallergics), histamine H2 receptor antagonists (antiulcers), histamine H3 receptor antagonists (management of cognitive disorders and attention-deficithyperactivity-disorder), antivirals, antiHIV, antibacterials, antifungals, anethelmintics, antiemetics, and antihypertensives.
Hussain N.,Al Ain University of Science and Technology
Diabetology International | Year: 2016
Diagnosing diabetes now includes a new criterion; hemoglobin A1C ≥6.5 % which can have significant implications. This review compares the advantages and disadvantages of using HbA1C as the main diabetic diagnostic test. HbA1C has greater stability and less variability than plasma glucose measurements but may not always reflect glycemic levels of glycaemia. The present cut off value identifies fewer diabetics than glucose-based criteria. HbA1C being more convenient could diagnose more patients but this is not yet proven. When choosing a diagnostic test, the limitations of each test must be clearly understood to use appropriate clinical judgment and consider patient preference. © 2015, The Japan Diabetes Society.