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Akershus, Norway

Several beneficial effects have been demonstrated for secretogranin II (SgII) in non-cardiac tissue. As cardiac production of chromogranin A and B, two related proteins, is increased in heart failure (HF), we hypothesized that SgII could play a role in cardiovascular pathophysiology. SgII production was characterized in a post-myocardial infarction heart failure (HF) mouse model, functional properties explored in experimental models, and circulating levels measured in mice and patients with stable HF of moderate severity. SgII mRNA levels were 10.5 fold upregulated in the left ventricle (LV) of animals with myocardial infarction and HF (p<0.001 vs. sham-operated animals). SgII protein levels were also increased in the LV, but not in other organs investigated. SgII was produced in several cell types in the myocardium and cardiomyocyte synthesis of SgII was potently induced by transforming growth factor-β and norepinephrine stimulation in vitro. Processing of SgII to shorter peptides was enhanced in the failing myocardium due to increased levels of the proteases PC1/3 and PC2 and circulating SgII levels were increased in mice with HF. Examining a pathophysiological role of SgII in the initial phase of post-infarction HF, the SgII fragment secretoneurin reduced myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and cardiomyocyte apoptosis by 30% and rapidly increased cardiomyocyte Erk1/2 and Stat3 phosphorylation. SgII levels were also higher in patients with stable, chronic HF compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects: median 0.16 (Q1-3 0.14-0.18) vs. 0.12 (0.10-0.14) nmol/L, p<0.001. We demonstrate increased myocardial SgII production and processing in the LV in animals with myocardial infarction and HF, which could be beneficial as the SgII fragment secretoneurin protects from ischemia-reperfusion injury and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Circulating SgII levels are also increased in patients with chronic, stable HF and may represent a new cardiac biomarker. Source


Omland T.,University of Oslo | Omland T.,Akershus University Hospital
Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2010

Cardiac troponin levels are routinely measured for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction. Cardiac troponin measurements also provide information concerning prognosis and the effect of early intervention in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The recent development of highly sensitive cardiac troponin assays permits detection of very low circulating levels. Use of sensitive troponin assays improves overall diagnostic accuracy in patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, and these assays provide strong prognostic information in stable coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure. However, increased sensitivity comes with a cost of decreased specificity, and serial testing, as well as clinical context and judgment, is likely to become increasingly important in the interpretation of troponin assay results. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Rugkasa J.,Akershus University Hospital | Rugkasa J.,University of Oxford | Dawson J.,University of Otago
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Community treatment orders (CTOs) have been widely introduced to address the problems faced by 'revolving door' patients. A number of case-control studies have been conducted but show conflicting results concerning the effectiveness of CTOs. The Oxford Community Treatment Order Evaluation Trial (OCTET) is the third randomised controlled trial (RCT) to show that CTOs do not reduce rates of readmission over 12 months, despite restricting patients' autonomy. This evidence gives pause for thought about current CTO practice. Further high-quality RCTs may settle the contentious debate about effectiveness. Source


Staer-Jensen J.,Akershus University Hospital
Obstetrics and gynecology | Year: 2013

To investigate whether pregnancy affects levator hiatus dimensions and the position and mobility of the bladder neck and the levator ani muscle in nulliparous pregnant women. In the present study, 274 nulliparous pregnant women were examined at 21 weeks and 37 weeks of gestation using three-dimensional and four-dimensional transperineal ultrasonography at rest, during contraction, and during Valsalva maneuver. Levator hiatus dimensions were the anteroposterior diameter, the transverse diameter, and the area measured in rendered images. Positions of the bladder neck and levator plate were analyzed in the midsagittal plane, and mobility was calculated as displacement of the bladder neck or levator plate from rest to contraction or from rest to Valsalva. A significant increase for all levator hiatus dimension measurements was found from 21 weeks to 37 weeks of gestation. The most marked change was found for levator hiatus area at rest and during Valsalva maneuver, in which the mean area was increased by 17.1% (11.7-13.7 cm(2)) and 21.4% (15.4-18.7 cm(2)), respectively. Bladder neck mobility changed significantly during pregnancy. The most marked change was seen from rest to contraction (mean -14 mm, standard deviation 0.4). An increase of all hiatal dimensions as well as bladder neck mobility was found from 21 weeks to 37 weeks of gestation in nulliparous pregnant women. The findings indicate that the changes in pelvic organ support are not solely caused by delivery, but also by physiologic changes during pregnancy. II. Source


Kristoffersen E.S.,Akershus University Hospital
The journal of headache and pain | Year: 2013

Chronic headache is associated with disability and high utilisation of health care including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). We investigated self-reported efficacy of CAM in people with chronic headache from the general population. Respondents with possible self-reported chronic headache were interviewed by physicians experienced in headache diagnostics. CAM queried included acupuncture, chiropractic, homeopathy, naprapathy, physiotherapy, psychological treatment, and psychomotor physiotherapy. Sixty-two % and 73% of those with primary and secondary chronic headache had used CAM.Self-reported efficacy of CAM ranged from 0-43% without significant differences between gender, headache diagnoses, co-occurrence of migraine, medication use or physician contact. CAM is widely used, despite self-reported efficacy of different CAM modalities is modest in the management of chronic headache. Source

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