Kjoollesdal M.R.,University of Oslo |
Holmboe-Ottesen G.,University of Oslo |
Mosdool A.,Akershus University College |
Wandel M.,University of Oslo
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010
Socioeconomic differences in overweight are well documented, but most studies have only used one or two indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP). The aim of the present study was to explore the relative importance of indicators of SEP (occupation, education and income) in explaining variation in BMI and waist:hip ratio (WHR), and the mediating effect of work control and lifestyle factors (dietary patterns, smoking and physical activity). The Oslo Health Study, a cross-sectional study, was carried out in 2000-1, Oslo, Norway. Our sample included 9235 adult working Oslo citizens, who attended a health examination and filled in two complementary FFQ with <20% missing responses to food items. Four dietary patterns were identified through factor analysis, and were named modern, Western, traditional and sweet. In multivariate models, BMI and WHR were inversely associated with education (P<0001/P<0001) and occupation (P=0002/P<0001), whereas there were no significant associations with income or the work control. The modern (P<0001) and the sweet (P<0001) dietary patterns and physical activity level (P<0001) were inversely associated, while the Western dietary pattern (P<0001) was positively associated with both BMI and WHR. These lifestyle factors could not fully explain the socioeconomic differences in BMI or WHR. However, together with socioeconomic factors, they explained more of the variation in WHR among men (21%) than among women (7%). © The Authors 2010.
Knutsen I.R.,Akershus University College |
Knutsen I.R.,University of Oslo |
Foss C.,University of Oslo
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences | Year: 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate understandings and strategies of empowerment in Learning and Mastery Centres, in a course in lifestyle change for morbidly obese patients. A field study was conducted with nonparticipant observation, and data analysis was inspired by Foucauldian discourse analysis. The analysis revealed powerful discourses underlying the course, and the analysis showed how different discourses were set at play within the teaching strategies in the course. The course leaders balanced powerful aspects that involved directing the participants towards strategies promoting their autonomy. The analysis revealed how strategies to reduce the impression of direction and conduct are powerful actions. From a Foucauldian perspective of power, this analysis demonstrates how power is everywhere as a productive force. When creating programmes to empower patients to help them deal with their health, it seems vital that health professionals examine power. By accepting the presence of power, professionals can examine the truth motivation underlying an empowerment programme. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Sagvolden T.,University of Oslo |
Johansen E.B.,Akershus University College
Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences | Year: 2012
Showing that an animal is hyperactive is not sufficient for it to be accepted as a model of ADHD. Based on behavioral, genetic, and neurobiological data, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) obtained from Charles River, Germany, (SHR/NCrl) is at present the best-validated animal model of ADHD. One Wistar Kyoto substrain (WKY/NHsd), obtained from Harlan, UK, is its most appropriate control. Another WKY substrain (WKY/NCrl) obtained from Charles River, Germany, is inattentive, has distinctly different genetics and neurobiology, and provides a promising model for the predominantly inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADHD-I) if one wants to investigate categorical ADHD subtypes. In this case, also, the WKY/NHsd substrain should be used as control. Although other rat strains may behave like WKY/NHsd rats, neurobiological results indicate significant differences when compared to the WKY/NHsd substrain, making them less suitable as controls for the SHR/NCrl. Thus, there are no obvious behavioral differences among the various SHRs, but there are behavioral and neurobiological differences among the WKY strains. The use of WKY/NCrl, outbred Wistar, Sprague Dawley, or other rat strains as controls for SHR/NCrl may produce spurious neurobiological effects and erroneous conclusions. Finally, model data yield support to independent hyperactivity and inattention dimensions in ADHD behavior. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.
Jonsdottir S.,University of Iceland |
Hughes R.,University of The Sunshine Coast |
Thorsdottir I.,University of Iceland |
Yngve A.,Akershus University College |
Yngve A.,Karolinska Institutet
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2011
Objective To assess and develop consensus among a European panel of public health nutrition stakeholders regarding the competencies required for effective public health nutrition practice and the level of proficiency required in different practice contexts.Design A modified Delphi study involving three rounds of questionnaires.Setting European Union.Subjects Public health nutrition workforce development stakeholders, including academics, practitioners and employers, from twenty European countries.Results A total of fifty-two expert panellists (84 % of an initial panel of sixty-two Delphi participants) completed all three rounds of the Delphi study. The panellists rated the importance of fifty-seven competency units possibly required of a public health nutritionist to effectively practice (Essential competencies). Twenty-nine of the fifty-seven competency units (51 %) met the consensus criteria (≥66·7 % agreement) at the second round of the Delphi survey, with the highest agreement for competencies clustered within the Nutrition science, Professional, Analytical and Public health services competency domains. Ratings of the level of competencies required for different levels in the workforce indicated that for a public health nutrition specialist, advanced-level competency was required across almost all the twenty-nine competencies rated as essential. There were limited differences in rating responses between academics and employer panellists throughout the Delphi study.Conclusions Competencies identified as essential can be used to review current public health nutrition practices and provide the basis for curriculum design and re-development, continuing education and workforce quality assurance systems in Europe. These are all important tools for systematic and strategic workforce development. © 2010 The Authors.
Tveiten S.,Akershus University College |
Knutsen I.R.,Akershus University College
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences | Year: 2011
The aim of the study was to highlight the patients' experiences and perspectives of the dialogue with the health professionals at a pain clinic. This knowledge can develop and give nuanced understanding of patient empowerment and sense of control. Qualitative content analysis was used to reveal the meaning of the patients' experiences and perspectives during focus group interviews. The findings and interpretations revealed the main theme; preconditions and opportunities for participation. The main theme was represented by four subthemes; means for common understanding, basis for collaboration, acknowledgement and legitimacy. The findings and interpretations are discussed in the light of an evolving theory on women's sense of control while experiencing chronic pain and empowerment. The dialogue is very important related to aspects of control, remoralization and demoralization and is affected by external structural factors. This underlines the importance of further research focusing on empowerment and power. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.