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Trolle E.,Technical University of Denmark | Amiano P.,CIBER ISCIII | Ege M.,Technical University of Denmark | Bower E.,CIBER ISCIII | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 × 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study), against a 7-day food-record (7-dFR) method among Danish schoolchildren. Subjects/Methods: A total of 74 children aged 7-8 years and 70 children aged 12-13 years were recruited through the Civil Registration System in Denmark. Each child and one of their parents completed two face-to-face 24-HDRs, combined with optional use of a FRB, followed by a 7-day-estimated FR. Results: Energy intake was significantly higher with the 24-HDR method than with the 7-dFR method for both age groups. Mean energy intake was 6% higher for the youngest (P0.02) and 11% for the oldest children (P0.01); underreporting of energy occurs among the oldest children, being less present with the 24-HDR method. The intakes of carbohydrate and dietary fiber (absolute and related to energy) were significantly higher with the 24-HDR than with the 7-dFR for both age groups (P0.001). No significant differences between the two methods were observed for absolute intake of fat and added sugar between both age groups, and for intake of protein among the 7- to 8-year olds. The percentage of energy intake from fat from the 24-HDR, however, was significantly lower for both age groups and for energy intake from added sugar for the 12- to 13-year olds. Conclusions: The 2 × 24-HDR method compared with the 7-dFR yields relatively good values on the group level for many macronutrients and foods. However, some differences in estimated intakes of macronutrients suggest the need to carefully adapt the tools to be age and country specific. There is a tendency for parents and schoolchildren to report a healthier diet with the 24-HDR than with the FRs; this results in some concern about the method and has to be studied further. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Trolle E.,Technical University of Denmark | Amiano P.,CIBER ISCIII | Ege M.,Technical University of Denmark | Bower E.,CIBER ISCIII | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background/Objectives: This study evaluates the feasibility among preschoolers of the 2 × 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) method combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program for the 24-HDR (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study). Subjects/Methods: A total of 20 and 25 (4- to 5-year-old) children were recruited, as a convenience sample, through worksites or day or healthcare in Denmark and Spain, respectively. One parent (or both parents together) completed two face-to-face 24-HDR, combined with an optional use of a FRB. Feasibility was evaluated by evaluation questionnaires completed by parents and interviewers. Results: The face-to-face interviews were primarily conducted with the mothers. The FRB was used by 90% of the participants, and proxy persons, other than the parent, were also involved; involvement of proxy persons seems necessary in a majority of the recalls in both the countries. Conclusions: The results suggest that 2 × 24-HDR with one parent combined with a FRB is feasible for registering preschoolers' diet. An FRB and/or information from proxy persons, other than the parent, is needed for a majority of the parents. In future studies, it may be beneficial to develop the FRB more like a structured food record (FR), which might, in principle, change the method to a one-day FR method from more than a 24-HDR method. It is recommended then to further investigate the use of EPIC-Soft as a data-entry tool. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Andersen L.F.,University of Oslo | Lioret S.,French Agency for Food | Brants H.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Kaic-Rak A.,Akademija Medicinskih Znanostl Hrvatske | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying the best dietary assessment methodologies, experts were brought together at a workshop. The paper presents the discussion of the best available method and the final recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method among 4- to 14-year-old children. Subjects/Methods: The starting point was to investigate whether the method (two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs)) suggested for the adults in European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) would be usable for children in the age group between 4 and 14 years. However, all available dietary assessment methods were included in the discussion to ensure that the final recommendation would be based on the best evidence. Six criteria were defined and used as additional guidance in the process. Results: The literature does not give a clear recommendation on the dietary assessment methods that are most suitable for children in the age group of 4-14 years. Nevertheless, on the basis of the literature, the recommendations were separated for preschoolers (4-6 years) and schoolchildren (7-14 years). Conclusion: For preschoolers, two non-consecutive days of a structured food record are recommended, using a (for children adapted) picture booklet and household measures for portion-size estimation. For schoolchildren, repeated 24-HDRs are recommended, using a picture booklet and household measures for portion-size estimation. In addition, the child should bring a booklet to register what is eaten out of home. One parent should assist the schoolchild at the 24-HDR interview, and therefore face-to-face interviews are required. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


De Boer E.J.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Slimani N.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Van'T Veer,Wageningen University | Boeing H.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | And 15 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background/Objectives: To outline and discuss the main results and conclusions of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project. Subjects/Methods: The EFCOVAL Project was carried out within the EU Sixth Framework Program by researchers in 11 EU countries. The activities focused on (1) the further development of the EPIC-Soft software (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) and the validation of the 2-day non-consecutive 24-HDR method using EPIC-Soft, (2) defining and investigating the applicability of the most appropriate dietary assessment method to younger age groups and expanding the applicability of the software for use in exposure assessment of some potentially hazardous chemicals and (3) to improve the methodology and statistical methods that estimate usual intake distributions from short-term dietary intake information and develop a methodology to quantify uncertainty in usual intake distributions. Results: The preexisting EPIC-Soft application was reprogrammed into a Windows environment and more than 60 new specifications were implemented in the software. A validation study showed that two non-consecutive EPIC-Soft 24-HDRs are suitable to estimate the usual intake distributions of protein and potassium of European adult populations. The 2-day non-consecutive 24-HDRs in combination with a food propensity questionnaire also appeared to be appropriate to rank individuals according to their fish and fruit and vegetable intake in a comparable way in five European centers. Dietary intake of (young) children can be assessed by the combination of EPIC-Soft 24-HDRs and food recording booklets. The EPIC-Soft-standardized method of describing foods is useful to estimate dietary exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals such as specific flavoring substances. With the developed Multiple Source Method, repeated non-consecutive 24-HDR data in combination with food propensity data can be used to estimate the population distribution of the usual intake by estimating the individual usual intakes. Conclusions: The findings provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the repeated 24-HDR using EPIC-Soft for standardization in combination with a food propensity questionnaire and modeling of usual intake is a suitable method for pan-European surveillance of nutritional adequacy and food safety among healthy adults and maybe in children aged 7 years and older. To facilitate this methodology in other European countries, the next step is to provide and standardize an implementation plan that accounts for maintenance and updates, sampling designs, national surveillance programs, tailored capacity building and training, and linkage to food composition and occurrence databases. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


De Boer E.J.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Slimani N.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Van'T Veer P.,Wageningen University | Boeing H.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | And 15 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background/Objectives: The overall objective of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project was to further develop and validate a trans-European food consumption method to be used for the evaluation of the intake of foods, nutrients and potentially hazardous chemicals within the European population. Subjects/Methods: The EFCOVAL Project was carried out by 13 institutes from 11 European countries. The main activities were centered on the three main objectives of the project organized in different sub-projects. Results: In EFCOVAL, EPIC-Soft (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was reprogrammed and adapted according to prioritized specifications, resulting in a software program working under the Windows operating system. In parallel of the EPIC-Soft development, the repeated 24-HDR method using EPIC-Soft and a food propensity questionnaire was evaluated against biomarkers in 24-h urine collections and in blood samples among adults from Belgium, the Czech Republic, (the South of) France, the Netherlands and Norway. As a result from an expert workshop on a proposed dietary assessment method for children (4-12 years), the suggested method was tested in a feasibility study in Denmark and Spain among children of 4-5, 7-8 and 12-13 years. To ensure that collected data had sufficient detail in food description for the assessment of additives and contaminants to foods the EPIC-Soft databases were adapted. Finally, the EFCOVAL Consortium developed a statistical tool (Multiple Source Method) for estimating the usual intake and distribution, which has been tested using real food consumption data and compared with three other statistical methods through a simulation study. In addition, a methodology was developed to quantify uncertainty due to portion-size estimation in usual intake distributions. Conclusion: The findings of EFCOVAL provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the repeated 24-HDR using EPIC-Soft for standardization in combination with a food propensity questionnaire and modeling of usual intake is a suitable method for pan-European surveillance of nutritional adequacy and food safety among healthy adults and maybe in children aged 7 years and older. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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