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Basiak A.,Katedra i Klinika Endokrynologii i Diabetologii Wieku Rozwojowego Akademii Medycznej we Wrocawiu | Wasikowa R.B.,Akademia Medyczna we Wroclawiu
Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism | Year: 2010

The report is the second part of a former publication. The authors presented a series of reports, especially from the last year, concerned with diagnostics and therapy of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The progress of the diagnostics included especially new, more perfect glycaemic monitoring systems. The progress and future of the therapy with personal insulin pumps and different international recommendations for the therapy of type 1 diabetes with short-acting insulin analogues were presented. Also, the problem of the reports about the increased risk of cancer after the treatment with a long-acting insulin analogue glargine was discussed (Lantus). Further investigations of the effect of the therapy with a biphasic insulin and new possibilities of oral therapy in type 2 diabetes were mentioned. It was stressed that actually, a lot of proposals of new drugs and new reports are observed. These reports are, however, frequently conference news and not complete reports and the proposals require further examinations and observations for a confirmed appreciation of their efficacy and safety.

Wolowiec P.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Mikulewicz M.,Akademia Medyczna we Wroclawiu | Chojnacka K.,Wroclaw University of Technology
Przemysl Chemiczny | Year: 2012

A review, with 31 refs., of construction materials used in orthodontic appliances and methods for testing their corrosion resistance in saliva. New test stand consisting of a thermostated glass reactor, water bath with an external circulation, peristaltic pump and a magnetic stirrer with heating function and temp, control was designed and constructed to study the metal ion leaching from stainless steel and nonferrous alloys. The program of the study was outlined.

Brzozowska E.,Instytut Immunologii i Terapii Doswiadczalnej | Bazan J.,Akademia Medyczna we Wroclawiu | Gamian A.,Instytut Immunologii i Terapii Doswiadczalnej
Postepy Higieny i Medycyny Doswiadczalnej | Year: 2011

Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses specific towards bacterial strains and are natural regulators of bacterial populations in nature. Interest in the therapeutic use of phages is growing due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens. Bacteriophage proteins are responsible for phage specificity and virulence. These proteins are i) adhesins, capable of recognizing specific receptors on the bacterial surface, ii) enzymes responsible for destroying bacterial cell wall components or bacterial slime, and iii) structural proteins making up the phage capsid. Bacteriophage enzymes destroy the bacterial cell wall from both outside and inside by hydrolyzing carbohydrate and protein components. All these proteins protect phage genetic material, secure injection of the phage nucleic acid into the bacterial cell, and promote phage propagation. Our better understanding of how bacterial viruses function may help to combat antibiotic resistant human pathogens and expand the use of bacteriophages to animal and plant care. Other applications may include food processing and environmental protection. © Schweizerische Chemische Gesellschaft.

Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are derivatives of oxidation-modified albumin which are formed in conditions of intensified oxidative stress. In diabetes the formation of AOPP is induced by intensified glycooxidation processes, oxidant-antioxidant imbalance, and coexisting inflammation. On the other hand, AOPP intensify the metabolic disturbances in diabetes and the progression of its vascular complications. Concentrations of AOPP is significantly higher in diabetes, especially type 2 (about twice) in comparison to healthy people. Changes in AOPP level are connected with poor glycemic control, the chronic state of the disease, dyslipidemia, and diabetic complications, particularly nephropathy. AOPP level is useful marker for monitoring development of diabetic disorders and can be helpful in monitoring of applied therapy.

Jedrejko M.,Akademia Medyczna we Wroclawiu | Skoczynska A.,Akademia Medyczna we Wroclawiu
Medycyna Pracy | Year: 2011

Introduction: Acquired reversible dyschromatopsia has been associated with occupational exposure to mercury vapor. Earlydetected impairments in color discrimination precede adverse permanent effects of mercury, so they may help to monitor the health of the exposed workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color discrimination ability in this group of workers, using Lanthony D-15d test. Material and methods: Employed in a chloralkali plant, 27 male workers exposed to mercury vapor and 27 healthy white-collar workers (control group) were qualified for the study. To assess color discrimination, the Lanthony 15-Hue desaturated test (Lanthony D-15) was used. In order to investigate quantitative and qualitative results, the Lanthony D-15d scoring software was performed. Urinary mercury was determined using flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: In the workers exposed to mercury vapor, urine mercury concentration was 117.4±62.6 μg/g creatinine on average compared with 0.279±0.224 mg/g creatinine in the control group (p < 0.0001). In 18 exposed persons (66.7%), the results of the Lanthony D-15d test showed qualitative changes, which are borderline corresponding to the early stage of developing dyschromatopsia type III. The quantitative analysis of the test findings indicated a significantly higher value of the Color Confusion Index (CCI) in the right eye in the exposed group compared to the control group (p = 0.01), with no significant difference in the CCI in the left eye. In the exposed group, the CCI in the right eye was significantly higher than the CCI in the left eye (p = 0.0005). There was neither correlation between CCI and the level of urinary mercury, nor between CCI and duration of exposure. Conclusions: The results showed that the Lanthony D-15d test is useful in the detection of early toxic effects in the eyesight of the workers exposed to mercury vapor. The observed color vision impairments are borderline corresponding to the early stage of developing dyschromatopsia type III. © Instytut Medycyny Pracy im. prof. J. Nofera w Łodzi.

Gladysz A.,Akademia Medyczna we Wroclawiu | Fleischer-Stepniewska K.,Akademia Medyczna we Wroclawiu
Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski | Year: 2011

According to the report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, infectious diseases are one of the eight most common causes of illness since 1990. Due to breaking down barriers of interspecies, the state of immunosuppression, widespread use of antibiotics, there are still new threats, and earlier known to cause disease of a different course, resistant to previously effective therapies. The evolution of infectious diseases directs our attention primarily on the validity of the principles of rational antibiotic use to the increasing resistance of microorganisms. The movements of the opponents of vaccination appear to be more effective than the planned education of doctors and their patients, and the absence of sufficient administrative control performance of vaccination, raises a serious problem in contemporary clinical researcher. Infectious diseases will continue to exist as long as host organisms. It is important to the fight against them, making the best use of expertise and funds. In such a situation, the balance may move to benefit us - humans.

Blaszczuk J.,Akademia Medyczna we Wroclawiu | Wroblewska I.,Panstwowa Wyzsza Medyczna Szkola Zawodowa W Opolu
International Review of Allergology and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Colitis ulcerosa is a chronic disease of unexplained etiology. It's incidence is rising. CU risk factors are: style of living, diet, environmental pollution, diabetes, depression, oral contraception, and appendectomy before age of 20 yrs, immunological disorders. CU main symptoms are: rectal haemorrhage, recurrent diarrhea, weakness, body mass loss. About 5% cases with severe CU presentation will require surgery. Rectum is always involved which allows for easy diagnosis due to rectoscopy. Patients with long history and severe symptoms will have increased risk of colon cancer development. They should be regularly checked with the colonoscopy with biopsy. Conservative treatment is based on 5-ASA derivatives: sulfosalasine and mesalasine used orally or as a suppository and enema. Others groups of drugs are glicocorticosteroids and immunosuppressive: 6-MP, azatioprine, metothrexate, cyclosporine-A. In the last years of previous age new type of therapy was introduced. It was monoclonal antibodies, as: anty-TNF-α, infliksymab, talidomid, antibody for α4β7-integrin, inhibitory of TNF-α synthesis. Important role in CU treatment plays proper diet and adequate colon microbial colonization. In the course of the disease concomitant syndromes may occur: osteoporosis, cholelithiasis or chronic liver insufficiency.

PubMed | Akademia Medyczna we Wroclawiu
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego | Year: 2012

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by the progressive destruction of the extracellular matrix of the lung. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, especially tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), play a central role in the lung remodeling in COPD. Their concentrations in the sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage are considered as a sign of the local inflammation in COPD patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate of the MMP-9 and TIMP-1 serum concentration in COPD patients with respect to the correlation with a systemic inflammatory process.Thirty six COPD patients (29 male and 7 female) were enrolled into the study. Age-matched, healthy 15 subjects (11 male and 4 female) were selected as a control group. Serum levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and CRP were measured. The pre- and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio were determined. The Spearman correlation was performed.The serum MMP-9 concentration was significantly higher in the COPD patients than that in the control group (COPD: 194.8 +/- 129.1 ng x ml(-1); control subjects: 11.7 +/- 2.1 ng x ml(-1); p < 0.001). The serum concentration of CRP was significantly higher in the COPD patients than that in the control group (COPD: 14.3 +/- 6.3 ng x ml(-1); control subjects: 6.2 +/- 2.8 ng x ml(-1); p < 0.001). There was statistically significant correlation between the MMP-9 concentration and the CRP level in the serum of patients with COPD (p < 0.01; r = 0.45). There were no significant differences in the serum TIMP-1 concentrations between the control group and COPD patients. There was statistically significant, negative correlation between the FEV1 % of predicted value and the MMP-9 concentration (p = 0.03; r = -0.43).MMP-9 may play an important role in the systemic inflammatory process in COPD. The serum concentrations of MMP-9 correlate with the stage of COPD.

PubMed | Akademia Medyczna we Wroclawiu
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego | Year: 2012

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS respectively) play an important role in the proper functioning of many cellular processes. Generation of reactive oxygen species is an integral part of aerobic metabolism of cells. Their overproduction and subsequent oxidative stress occurs during pathogenesis of many diseases. Nitrosative stress is very closely linked to oxidative stress. Nitric oxide (NO), can react with molecular oxygen, superoxide anions and metal cations generating consecutive reactive oxygen species. These highly reactive chemical compounds react with proteins impairing their function by oxidation, or nitrosylation of amino acid residues, which may induce apoptosis. Furthermore, nitric oxide enhances the effect induced by cyclooxygenases and becomes a mediator of the inflammatory response. This paper gathers key information on the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as processes in which they participate.

PubMed | Akademia Medyczna we Wroclawiu
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego | Year: 2012

There are reports that hearing loss is one of the clinical manifestations of metabolic bone diseases. Demineralization can lead to a reduction in ossicular mass. Pagets disease can reveal loss of mineral density of the cochlear bone. Ear bone remodeling in osteoporosis is similar to the changes in otosclerosis. Moreover, osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta and otosclerosis have a similar genetic mechanism. According to some researchers osteopenia and osteoporosis may well be associated with idiopathic benign positional vertigo (BPV). Dysfunction of the organ of hearing and balance in patients with renal insufficiency may be due to disturbances in calcium phosphate balance and renal osteodystrophy in the course of the disease. Proving the presence of hearing loss in patients with metabolic bone diseases may lead to determining the new indications for bone densitometry in some patients with hearing impairment. Furthermore, audiological examination in patients with osteoporosis may be important because of the impact of hearing loss on prognosis for patients with metabolic bone diseases.

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