Lee J.,Ajou University
Current opinion in oncology | Year: 2012
To describe refinements in surgical techniques using robotic thyroidectomy and robotic modified radical neck dissection (MRND), and to discuss the impact of such developments on thyroid cancer management, from oncological, functional, and surgical viewpoints. From 2009 to present, 23 reports, including three multicenter trials, on the conduct of robotic thyroid surgery via a gasless transaxillary approach appeared. Twenty-two studies discussed robotic thyroidectomy, whereas one described robotic MRND. These clinical studies showed that robotic surgery afforded identical or superior levels of surgical radicality and oncologic safety compared to use of conventional open or endoscopic surgery in patients with thyroid carcinomas. In such patients, the clinical benefits of robotic thyroidectomy include excellent cosmetic results, reduced pain, improvement in swallowing function, and low morbidity rates. From the viewpoint of surgeons, robotic surgery shortens the surgical learning curve, and causes less musculoskeletal discomfort compared with the conduct of open or endoscopic surgery. The accumulated evidence to date suggests that robotic thyroidectomy and MRND can benefit both patients and surgeons.
Kim H.M.,Ajou University |
Cho B.R.,Korea University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2015
The scientific review presents a condensed, all-inclusive evaluation of the design, synthesis, and biomedical application of the various small-molecule two-photon (TP) probes that have been published before December 2014. The review has focused on only the TP probes for which the properties have been clearly characterized and which produce high-quality two-photon microscopy (TPM) images in an effort to avoid an excessive number of references. The review starts by describing the fundamental concept of two-photon absorption (TPA), followed by a description of the organic solvent-based model studies that established the use of TPM in the biomedical field.
Kang K.,Ajou University
Nature communications | Year: 2013
DNA is distinguished by both long length and structural rigidity. Classical polymer theories predict that DNA enhances the non-Newtonian elastic properties of its dilute solution more significantly than common synthetic flexible polymers because of its larger size and longer relaxation time. Here we exploit this property to report that under Poiseuille microflow, rigid spherical particles laterally migrate and form a tightly focused stream in an extremely dilute DNA solution (0.0005 (w/v)%). By the use of the DNA solution, we achieve highly efficient focusing (>99.5%) over an unprecedented wide range of flow rates (ratio of maximum to minimum flow rates ~400). This highly tunable particle-focusing technique can be used in the design of cost-effective portable flow cytometers, high-throughput cell analysis and also for cell sorting by size. We demonstrate that DNA is an efficient elasticity enhancer, which originates from its unique structural properties.
Choi K.S.,Ajou University
Experimental and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012
Basal autophagy plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and genomic integrity by degrading aged or malfunctioning organelles and damaged or misfolded proteins. However, autophagy also plays a complicated role in tumorigenesis and treatment responsiveness. It can be tumor-suppressing during the early stages of tumorigenesis (i.e., it is an anti-tumor mechanism), as reduced autophagy is found in tumor cells and may be associated with malignant transformation. In this case, induction of autophagy would seem to be beneficial for cancer prevention. In established tumors, however, autophagy can be tumor- promoting (i.e., it is a pro-tumor mechanism), and cancer cells can use enhanced autophagy to survive under metabolic and therapeutic stress. The pharmacological and/or genetic inhibition of autophagy was recently shown to sensitize cancer cells to the lethal effects of various cancer therapies, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies, suggesting that suppression of the autophagic pathway may represent a valuable sensitizing strategy for cancer treatments. In contrast, excessive stimulation of autophagy may also provide a therapeutic strategy for treating resistant cancer cells having high apoptotic thresholds. In order for us to develop successful autophagy- modulating strategies against cancer, we need to better understand how the roles of autophagy differ depending on the tumor stage, cell type and/or genetic factors, and we need to determine how specific pathways of autophagy are activated or inhibited by the various anti-cancer therapies. © 2012 by the The Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Noh M.,Ajou University
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2012
Lineage commitment of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) to adipocytes or osteoblasts has been suggested as a model system to study the relationship between type II diabetes and abnormal bone metabolism. Leptin and IL-17A inhibit adipogenesis whereas they promote osteogenesis in MSCs. Due to pathophysiologic roles of IL-17A in human metabolic diseases and bone metabolism, it was evaluated whether IL-17A-dependent inverse regulation on adipogenesis and osteogenesis was related to endogenous leptin production in hBM-MSCs. In the analysis of adiponectin and leptin secretion profiles of hBM-MSCs in response to various combinations of differentiation inducing factors, it was found that dexamethasone, a common molecule used for both adipogenesis and osteogenesis, increased leptin production in hBM-MSCs. Importantly, the level of leptin production during osteogenesis in hBM-MSCs was higher than that during adipogenesis, implicating a significant leptin production in extra-adipose tissues. IL-17A increased leptin production in hBM-MSCs and also under the condition of osteogenesis. In spite of direct inhibition on adipogenesis, IL-17A up-regulated leptin production in hBM-MSC-derived adipocytes. Anti-leptin antibody treatment partially antagonized the IL-17A dependent inhibition of adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs, suggesting a role of leptin in mediating the inverse regulation of IL-17A on osteogenesis and adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs. Therefore, the IL-17A-induced leptin production may provide a key clue to understand a molecular mechanism on the lineage commitment of hBM-MSCs into adipocytes or osteoblasts. In addition, leptin production in extra-adipose tissues like MSCs and osteoblasts should be considered in future studies on leptin-associated human diseases. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.