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Leipzig, Germany

Kovacs G.G.,Medical University of Vienna | Breydo L.,University of South Florida | Green R.,University of South Florida | Kis V.,Eotvos Lorand University | And 13 more authors.
Neurobiology of Disease | Year: 2014

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy are characterized by the deposition of disease-associated α-synuclein. In the present study we 1) examined the molecular specificity of the novel anti-α-synuclein 5G4 antibody; 2) evaluated immunoreactivity patterns and their correlation in human brain tissue with micro- and astrogliosis in 57 cases with PD or DLB; and 3) performed a systematic immunoelectron microscopical mapping of subcellular localizations. 5G4 strongly binds to the high molecular weight fraction of β-sheet rich oligomers, while no binding to primarily disordered oligomers or monomers was observed. We show novel localizations of disease-associated α-synuclein including perivascular macrophages, ependyma and cranial nerves. α-Synuclein immunoreactive neuropil dots and thin threads associate more with glial reaction than Lewy bodies alone. Astrocytic α-synuclein is an important component of the pathology. Furthermore, we document ultrastructurally the pathway of processing of disease-associated α-synuclein within neurons and astroglial cells. Interaction of mitochondria and disease-associated α-synuclein plays a key role in the molecular-structural cytopathogenesis of disorders with Lewy bodies. We conclude that 1) the 5G4 antibody has strong selectivity for β-sheet rich α-synuclein oligomers; 2) Lewy bodies themselves are not the most relevant morphological substrate that evokes tissue lesioning; 3) both neurons and astrocytes internalize disease-associated α-synuclein in the human brain, suggesting prion-like cell-to-cell spread of α-synuclein by uptake from surrounding structures, as shown previously in experimental observations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Betemps D.,ANSES French Agency for Food | Verchere J.,ANSES French Agency for Food | Mougenot A.-L.,Indicia Production | Lachmann I.,AJ Roboscreen GmbH | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Visualized Experiments | Year: 2015

In addition to established methods like Western blot, new methods are needed to quickly and easily quantify disease-associated α-synuclein (αSD) in experimental models of synucleopathies. A transgenic mouse line (M83) over-expressing the human A53T αS and spontaneously developing a dramatic clinical phenotype between eight and 22 months of age, characterized by symptoms including weight loss, prostration, and severe motor impairment, was used in this study. For molecular analyses of αSD (disease-associated αS) in these mice, an ELISA was designed to specifically quantify αSD in sick mice. Analysis of the central nervous system in this mouse model showed the presence of αSD mainly in the caudal brain regions and the spinal cord. There were no differences in αSD distribution between different experimental conditions leading to clinical disease, i.e., in uninoculated and normally aging transgenic mice and in mice inoculated with brain extracts from sick mice. The specific detection of αSD immunoreactivity using an antibody against Ser129 phosphorylated αS by ELISA essentially correlated with that obtained by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Unexpectedly, similar results were observed with several other antibodies against the Cterminal part of αS. The propagation of αSD, suggesting the involvement of a “prion-like” mechanism, can thus be easily monitored and quantified in this mouse model using an ELISA approach. © 2015 Journal of Visualized Experiments. Source

Herrmann L.,University of Leipzig | Wiegmann C.,University of Leipzig | Arsalan-Werner A.,University of Leipzig | Hilbrich I.,University of Leipzig | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Defects in intracellular transport are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hook proteins are a family of cytoplasmic linker proteins that participate in endosomal transport. In this study we show that Hook1 and Hook3 are expressed in neurons while Hook2 is predominantly expressed in astrocytes. Furthermore, Hook proteins are associated with pathological hallmarks in AD; Hook1 and Hook3 are localized to tau aggregates and Hook2 to glial components within amyloid plaques. Additionally, the expression of Hook3 is reduced in AD. Modelling of Hook3 deficiency in cultured cells leads to slowing of endosomal transport and increases β-amyloid production. We propose that Hook3 plays a role in pathogenic events exacerbating AD. © 2015 Herrmann et al. Source

Wolf J.,University of Leipzig | Jager C.,University of Leipzig | Lachmann I.,AJ Roboscreen GmbH | Schonknecht P.,University of Leipzig | And 3 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2013

Typical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are pathologic deposits in cortical and subcortical regions consisting of self-aggregated proteins such as amyloid-beta (Aβ) or tau. Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) catalyses calcium-dependent cross-linking between proteins (transamidation) resulting in protease-resistant isopeptide bonds. Because of this ability, tTG was suspected to participate in AD pathogenesis. Aβ and tau can be cross-linked by tTG invitro. In AD neocortex, messenger RNA expression of tTG is increased. However, data on transamidation in AD specimens-activity of not only tTG but also other transglutaminases-are contradictory. The aim of our study was to investigate if tTG is involved in AD development and may be useful as biomarker for AD. We studied human brain samples for tTG concentration, tTG localization, and transamidation activity and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for tTG content by novel sensitive and highly specific methods. Neither tTG concentration nor transamidation was increased in AD brain homogenates. Immunohistologically, we found no colocalization of tTG in neocortex sections with tau or Aβ deposits but with blood vessels. Only in rare cases, tTG was detectable in CSF samples. This could be attributed to liberation from erythrocytes. Our data contradict the view that tTG is a potential biochemical marker for AD. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Dorey A.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Dorey A.,Neurochemistry Unit | Tholance Y.,University of Lyon | Tholance Y.,University of Limoges | And 16 more authors.
JAMA Neurology | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE: Although typical forms of Alzheimer disease (AD) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are clinically distinguishable, atypical AD phenotypesmay pose a diagnostic challenge. The major biological diagnostic biomarker for identifying CJD, 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), unfortunately lacks specificity when confronting a rapid dementia presentation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relevance of total CSF prion protein (t-PrP) levels in the differential biological diagnosis between atypical AD phenotypes and CJD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective study in an autopsy-confirmed cohort of 82 patients was performed to evaluate the relevance of CSF t-PrP to distinguish 30 definite cases of AD from 52 definite cases of CJD. Next, CSF t-PrP concentration was measured in a cohort of 104 patients including 55 patients with probable AD, 26 with probable sporadic CJD, and 23 control patients for whom 14-3-3 protein, total tau, phosphorylated tau 181 (P-tau181), and Aβ1-42 were available. We investigated 46 patients diagnosed as having probable AD who presented atypical phenotypes. A diagnosis strategy was proposed to classify atypical AD phenotypes with suspicion of CJD based on a decision tree combining CSF biomarkers. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We determined CSF t-PrP levels for all patients. We calculated the ratio of total tau and P-tau181 and determined the diagnostic accuracy of each biomarker alone or in combination. We calculated the misclassification rate for each biomarker that corresponded to the percentage of patients within the group of atypical AD phenotypes wrongly classified as CJD. RESULTS: In patients with CJD, CSF t-PrP concentrations were decreased compared with control participants and patients with AD. When considering the differential diagnosis of CJD compared with atypical AD phenotypes, CSF t-PrP determination reached 82.1% sensitivity and 91.3% specificity. The misclassification rate of atypical AD phenotypes decreased from 43.5%, obtained when using the CSF 14-3-3 protein determination alone, to only 4.3% when calculating the ratio total tau/(P-tau181 × t-PrP). The proposed classification tree permitted correct classification of 98.4% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: For unusual phenotypes of AD, especially cases presenting with a biological ambiguity suggesting CJD, determination of CSF t-PrP levels increased diagnostic accuracy. The use of CSF t-PrP levels may be beneficial in clinical practice in addition to the current classic biomarkers. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

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