Aix-Marseille University is a public research university located in Provence, southern France. With roots dating back to 1409, the university was formed by the merger of the University of Provence, the University of the Mediterranean and Paul Cézanne University. The merger became effective on 1 January 2012, resulting in the creation of the largest university in France and the French-speaking world, with about 70,000 students. AMU has the largest financial endowment of any academic institution in the Francophone world, standing at €650 million.The university is organized around five main campuses situated in Aix-en-Provence and Marseille. Apart from its major campuses, AMU owns and operates facilities in Arles, Aubagne, Avignon, Digne-les-Bains, Gap, La Ciotat, Lambesc and Salon-de-Provence. The university is headquartered at the Pharo, Marseille.AMU has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, politics, business, economics and literature. To date, there have been four Nobel Laureates amongst its alumni and faculty, as well as a two-time recipient of the Pulitzer Prize, three César Award winners, several heads of state, parliamentary speakers, government ministers, ambassadors and members of the Institut de France.AMU has hundreds of research and teaching partnerships, including close collaboration with the French National Centre for Scientific Research and the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission . AMU is a member of numerous academic organisations including the European University Association and the Mediterranean Universities Union . Wikipedia.
Mondal S.,Aix - Marseille University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012
A study was conducted to demonstrate the latest developments in the synthesis and application of sultones. It was demonstrated that several researchers were investigating sultone chemistry, as sultones were synthetically useful heterocycles in organic synthesis. Many powerful methodologies were developed for the synthesis of the sultones, such as intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions, ring-closing metathesis, Pd-catalyzed intramolecular coupling reactions, Rh-catalyzed C-H insertion, and Rh-catalyzed carbene cyclization cycloaddition cascade reactions. The syntheses of sultones have been divided into two categories for better understanding, such as asymmetric synthesis and nonasymmetric synthesis. Asymmetric syntheses of sultones became an attractive goal for the researchers, as chiral sultones offered novel possibilities for stereoselective transformations. Source
Pellissier H.,Aix - Marseille University
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2012
Since about the year 2000, the research area of asymmetric organocatalysis has grown rapidly to become one of the most fascinating and current fields in organic chemistry. In the last years, asymmetric domino reactions have widely benefited from this fast-growing field, as exemplified by the development of an explosive number of novel and powerful asymmetric organocatalytic domino processes, which allowed the easy construction of complex chiral molecular architectures from simple materials with high yields and very often remarkable enantioselectivities in a metal-free environment. Indeed, the possibility to join two or more organocatalytic reactions in one asymmetric domino process has become a challenging goal for chemists, due to several advantages from economical and environmental points of view, avoiding costly protecting groups and time-consuming purification procedures after each step, for example. This review aims to update the latest developments of this hot and fascinating field, covering the literature since the beginning of 2009. Abbreviations: Ac: acetyl; Ar: aryl; BDHP: 1,1′-binaphth-2,2′-diyl hydrogen phosphate; BA: Brønsted acid; BINAPO: 2-diphenylphosphino-2′-diphenylphosphinyl-1, 1′-binaphthalene; BINOL: 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol; Boc: tert-butoxycarbonyl; Bn: benzyl; Bu: butyl; Bz: benzoyl; CSA: camphorsulfonic acid; Cy: cyclohexyl; Cbz: benzyloxycarbonyl; DABCO: 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2] octane; DBU: 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene; DCE: dichloroethane; de: diastereomeric excess; DFT: density functional theory; DHQ: hydroquinine; DHQD: dihydroquinidine; DIPEA: diisopropylethylamine; DKR: dynamic kinetic resolution; DMAD: dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate; E: electrophile; ee: enantiomeric excess; ESI: electrospray ionization; Et: ethyl; Fu: furyl; Hept: heptyl; Hex: hexyl; HOMO: highest occupied molecular orbital; IBX: o-iodoxybenzoic acid; LB: Lewis base; LUMO: lowest unoccupied molecular orbital; Me: methyl; MOM: methoxymethyl; Mes: mesyl; MS: mass spectroscopy; MTBE: methyl tert-butyl ether; NADH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; Naph: naphthyl; NHC: N-heterocyclic carbene; NMM: N-methylmorpholine; NMP: N-methylpyrrolidinone; Ns: nosyl; Nu: nucleophile; Oct: octyl; PCC: pyridinium chlorochromate; Pent: pentyl; PFBA: pentafluorobenzoic acid; Ph: phenyl; PMB: para-methoxybenzyl; Pr: propyl; Py: pyridine; r.t.: room temperature; TBA: tribromoacetic acid; TBS: tert-butyldimethylsilyl; TCBA: 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoic acid; TES: triethylsilyl; TFA: trifluoroacetic acid; THF: tetrahydrofuran; Thio: thiophene; TMEDA: tetramethylethylenediamine; TMS: trimethylsilyl; Tol: tolyl; Ts: 4-toluenesulfonyl (tosyl). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source
Ben-Ari Y.,Aix - Marseille University
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2015
Birth is associated with a neuroprotective, oxytocin-mediated abrupt excitatory-to-inhibitory GABA shift that is abolished in autism, and its restoration attenuates the disorder in offspring. In this Opinion article, I discuss the links between birth-related stressful mechanisms, persistent excitatory GABA actions, perturbed network oscillations and autism. I propose that birth (parturition) is a critical period that confirms, attenuates or aggravates the deleterious effects of intrauterine genetic or environmental insults. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source
Pellissier H.,Aix - Marseille University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013
Domino reactions are classified according to the mechanism of the individual steps, which may be of the same or different type. The quality and importance of a domino reaction can be correlated to the number of bonds generated in such a process and the increase in complexity. The concept of domino sequences has allowed easily reaching high molecular complexity with very often excellent levels of stereocontrol with simple operational procedures, as well as advantages of savings in solvent, time, energy, and costs. The use of one-component, two-component, and multicomponent domino reactions in asymmetric synthesis is increasing constantly. Such single-step reactions allow the synthesis of a wide range of structurally diverse and complex chiral molecules from simple substrates in an economically favorable manner by avoiding the use of costly and time-consuming protection deprotection processes, as well as purification procedures of intermediates. Source
Aix - Marseille University | Date: 2015-06-08
This invention relates to a composition comprising an anti-HIV treatment and a treatment for side effects of said anti-HIV treatment in an HIV-infected patient. This invention is, for example, very useful in the treatment of side effects caused by certain anti-HIV treatments, for example premature aging and lipodystrophy, which can be caused by protease inhibitors or reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The composition of this invention includes at least one hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, at least one farnesyl-pyrophosphate synthase inhibitor, and at least one anti-HIV agent. One of the processes for treating an HIV-infected patient includes, in any order, the following steps: (i) administration of a mixture including at least one hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor and at least one farnesyl-pyrophosphate synthase inhibitor and (ii) administration of an anti-HIV agent, in which the administrations are concomitant, successive or alternative.