Aix-Marseille University is a public research university located in Provence, southern France. With roots dating back to 1409, the university was formed by the merger of the University of Provence, the University of the Mediterranean and Paul Cézanne University. The merger became effective on 1 January 2012, resulting in the creation of the largest university in France and the French-speaking world, with about 70,000 students. AMU has the largest financial endowment of any academic institution in the Francophone world, standing at €650 million.The university is organized around five main campuses situated in Aix-en-Provence and Marseille. Apart from its major campuses, AMU owns and operates facilities in Arles, Aubagne, Avignon, Digne-les-Bains, Gap, La Ciotat, Lambesc and Salon-de-Provence. The university is headquartered at the Pharo, Marseille.AMU has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, politics, business, economics and literature. To date, there have been four Nobel Laureates amongst its alumni and faculty, as well as a two-time recipient of the Pulitzer Prize, three César Award winners, several heads of state, parliamentary speakers, government ministers, ambassadors and members of the Institut de France.AMU has hundreds of research and teaching partnerships, including close collaboration with the French National Centre for Scientific Research and the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission . AMU is a member of numerous academic organisations including the European University Association and the Mediterranean Universities Union . Wikipedia.
Kelly R.G.,Aix - Marseille University
Current Topics in Developmental Biology | Year: 2012
Ten years ago, a population of cardiac progenitor cells was identified in pharyngeal mesoderm that gives rise to a major part of the amniote heart. These multipotent progenitor cells, termed the second heart field (SHF), contribute progressively to the poles of the elongating heart tube during looping morphogenesis, giving rise to myocardium, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells. Research into the mechanisms of SHF development has contributed significantly to our understanding of the properties of cardiac progenitor cells and the origins of congenital heart defects. Here recent data concerning the regulation, clinically relevant subpopulations, evolution and lineage relationships of the SHF are reviewed. Proliferation and differentiation of SHF cells are controlled by multiple intercellular signaling pathways and a transcriptional regulatory network that is beginning to be elucidated. Perturbation of SHF development results in common forms of congenital heart defects and particular progenitor cell subpopulations are highly relevant clinically, including cells giving rise to myocardium at the base of the pulmonary trunk and the interatrial septum. A SHF has recently been identified in amphibian, fish, and agnathan embryos, highlighting the important contribution of these cells to the evolution of the vertebrate heart. Finally, SHF-derived parts of the heart share a lineage relationship with craniofacial skeletal muscles revealing that these progenitor cells belong to a broad cardiocraniofacial field of pharyngeal mesoderm. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying the dynamic process of SHF deployment is likely to yield further insights into cardiac development and pathology. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Mondal S.,Aix - Marseille University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012
A study was conducted to demonstrate the latest developments in the synthesis and application of sultones. It was demonstrated that several researchers were investigating sultone chemistry, as sultones were synthetically useful heterocycles in organic synthesis. Many powerful methodologies were developed for the synthesis of the sultones, such as intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions, ring-closing metathesis, Pd-catalyzed intramolecular coupling reactions, Rh-catalyzed C-H insertion, and Rh-catalyzed carbene cyclization cycloaddition cascade reactions. The syntheses of sultones have been divided into two categories for better understanding, such as asymmetric synthesis and nonasymmetric synthesis. Asymmetric syntheses of sultones became an attractive goal for the researchers, as chiral sultones offered novel possibilities for stereoselective transformations.
Pellissier H.,Aix - Marseille University
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2012
Since about the year 2000, the research area of asymmetric organocatalysis has grown rapidly to become one of the most fascinating and current fields in organic chemistry. In the last years, asymmetric domino reactions have widely benefited from this fast-growing field, as exemplified by the development of an explosive number of novel and powerful asymmetric organocatalytic domino processes, which allowed the easy construction of complex chiral molecular architectures from simple materials with high yields and very often remarkable enantioselectivities in a metal-free environment. Indeed, the possibility to join two or more organocatalytic reactions in one asymmetric domino process has become a challenging goal for chemists, due to several advantages from economical and environmental points of view, avoiding costly protecting groups and time-consuming purification procedures after each step, for example. This review aims to update the latest developments of this hot and fascinating field, covering the literature since the beginning of 2009. Abbreviations: Ac: acetyl; Ar: aryl; BDHP: 1,1′-binaphth-2,2′-diyl hydrogen phosphate; BA: Brønsted acid; BINAPO: 2-diphenylphosphino-2′-diphenylphosphinyl-1, 1′-binaphthalene; BINOL: 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol; Boc: tert-butoxycarbonyl; Bn: benzyl; Bu: butyl; Bz: benzoyl; CSA: camphorsulfonic acid; Cy: cyclohexyl; Cbz: benzyloxycarbonyl; DABCO: 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2] octane; DBU: 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene; DCE: dichloroethane; de: diastereomeric excess; DFT: density functional theory; DHQ: hydroquinine; DHQD: dihydroquinidine; DIPEA: diisopropylethylamine; DKR: dynamic kinetic resolution; DMAD: dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate; E: electrophile; ee: enantiomeric excess; ESI: electrospray ionization; Et: ethyl; Fu: furyl; Hept: heptyl; Hex: hexyl; HOMO: highest occupied molecular orbital; IBX: o-iodoxybenzoic acid; LB: Lewis base; LUMO: lowest unoccupied molecular orbital; Me: methyl; MOM: methoxymethyl; Mes: mesyl; MS: mass spectroscopy; MTBE: methyl tert-butyl ether; NADH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; Naph: naphthyl; NHC: N-heterocyclic carbene; NMM: N-methylmorpholine; NMP: N-methylpyrrolidinone; Ns: nosyl; Nu: nucleophile; Oct: octyl; PCC: pyridinium chlorochromate; Pent: pentyl; PFBA: pentafluorobenzoic acid; Ph: phenyl; PMB: para-methoxybenzyl; Pr: propyl; Py: pyridine; r.t.: room temperature; TBA: tribromoacetic acid; TBS: tert-butyldimethylsilyl; TCBA: 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoic acid; TES: triethylsilyl; TFA: trifluoroacetic acid; THF: tetrahydrofuran; Thio: thiophene; TMEDA: tetramethylethylenediamine; TMS: trimethylsilyl; Tol: tolyl; Ts: 4-toluenesulfonyl (tosyl). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Cossart R.,Aix - Marseille University
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2014
GABAergic microcircuits structure the activation of neuronal ensembles that support most cortical computations. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the GABAergic cell community, a full understanding of structure-function relationships in these microcircuits may be hampered by a reductionist approach that consists of classifying them according to an exhaustive collection of parameters. It therefore could be beneficial to our understanding of these complex cells to also consider other approaches. Thus, graph theory has recently taught us that biological networks often include hub nodes that are essential for information flow, and ensuing experimental evidence has demonstrated the existence of 'operational' hub neurons. So far, only GABAergic neurons have been identified as 'operational hubs', further emphasizing their critical function in controlling cortical network dynamics. © 2013.
Ben-Ari Y.,Aix - Marseille University
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2015
Birth is associated with a neuroprotective, oxytocin-mediated abrupt excitatory-to-inhibitory GABA shift that is abolished in autism, and its restoration attenuates the disorder in offspring. In this Opinion article, I discuss the links between birth-related stressful mechanisms, persistent excitatory GABA actions, perturbed network oscillations and autism. I propose that birth (parturition) is a critical period that confirms, attenuates or aggravates the deleterious effects of intrauterine genetic or environmental insults. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.