AIT Laboratories

Indianapolis, IN, United States

AIT Laboratories

Indianapolis, IN, United States

Time filter

Source Type

Weimer M.B.,Oregon Health And Science University | Korthuis P.T.,Oregon Health And Science University | Behonick G.S.,AIT Laboratories | Wunsch M.J.,TASL Clinic
Journal of Addiction Medicine | Year: 2011

Objectives: Methadone-related overdose deaths increased in the United States by 468% from 1999 to 2005. Current studies associate the nonmedical use of methadone with methadone-related deaths. This study describes medical examiner cases in rural Virginia in 2004 with methadone identified by toxicology and compares cases according to source of methadone. Methods: In 2004, all intentional and unintentional poisoning deaths from the Office of The Chief Medical Examiner, Western District of Virginia, were reviewed to identify cases in which methadone was a direct or contributing cause of death. The Virginia Prescription Monitoring Program was reviewed for prescription opioids in the name of these identified decedents. Decedent participation in local opioid treatment programs (OTP) was also assessed. Results: The source of methadone in the 61 methadone-related overdose deaths was mostly nonprescribed (67%), although 28% of decedents were prescribed methadone for analgesia. Only 5% of decedents were actively enrolled in an OTP. The majority of deaths were attributed to polysubstance overdose. Conclusions: The majority of methadone overdose deaths in this study were related to illicit methadone use, rather than prescribed or OTP uses. Interventions to decreasemethadone-related deaths should focus on reduction of nonprescription use of methadone. Copyright © 2011 American Society of Addiction Medicine.


Shanks K.G.,AIT Laboratories | Winston D.,University of Arizona | Heidingsfelder J.,Fayette County Coroners Office | Behonick G.,AIT Laboratories
Forensic Science International | Year: 2015

Synthetic cannabinoids have been available in herbal incense and potpourri products over the Internet and in smoke shops for the last several years. We report the deaths of two individuals that were associated with XLR-11. Specimens were extracted via a liquid-liquid extraction at basic pH into hexane:ethyl acetate and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. For these two case reports, we describe the instrumental analysis and extraction methods for XLR-11, toxicological results for postmortem blood specimens, relevant case information and autopsy findings. We also briefly review any previously published peer-reviewed reports in which XLR-11 was analytically confirmed and determined to be an intoxicating agent. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Wunsch M.J.,Kaiser Permanente | Nuzzo P.A.,University of Kentucky | Behonick G.,AIT Laboratories | Massello W.,North Dakota State Forensic Examiner | Walsh S.L.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Addiction Medicine | Year: 2013

Aim: Nonmedical use of prescription drugs and poisoning overdose deaths related to prescription drugs are increasing. This article presents an in-depth description of decedents from rural southwestern Virginia, where methadone was identified on toxicology. Methods: Cases for this study were derived from a population-based review of 893 drug-related deaths occurring from 1997 to 2003 in the Office of the Medical Examiner, Western District of Virginia. Results: Deaths in which methadone was identified on toxicology in rural southwestern Virginia increased rapidly over the 7-year study period. In the majority of cases, the cause of death was polydrug toxicity, and the manner of death was classified as accident. A majority of decedents did not have prescriptions for drugs identified on toxicology. The mean concentration of methadone for all cases was 495 mg/L, and there was no significant difference between concentrations where methadone was found alone or in combination with other drugs. There was a significant difference in methadone concentrations for those with prescriptions (645 mg/L vs 449 mg/L) when compared with those without. Conclusions: Cases where methadone was identified on toxicology increased significantly over the time studied. Efforts to prevent these deaths include the use of State Prescription Monitoring Programs, Universal Precautions, and Guidelines from the Federation of State Medical Boards. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Addiction Medicine.


Shanks K.G.,AIT Laboratories | Clark W.,East Baton Rouge Parish Coroners Office | Behonick G.,AIT Laboratories
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2016

Synthetic cannabinoids have been found in herbal incense products for the last several years. We report the rapid death of an individual that was certified as synthetic cannabinoid-associated. The autopsy blood specimen was extracted by a liquid-liquid extraction at pH 10.2 into a hexane-ethyl acetate mixture and analyzed by a generalized synthetic cannabinoid LC-MS-MS method. For this case report, we briefly describe the instrumental analysis and extraction methods for the detection of ADB-FUBINACA in postmortem blood, toxicological results for the postmortem blood specimen (ADB-FUBINACA, 7.3 ng/mL; THC, 1.1 ng/mL; THC-COOH, 4.7 ng/mL), case information and circumstances and pertinent findings at autopsy. The cause of death was certified as coronary arterial thrombosis in combination with synthetic cannabinoid use. Manner of death was accident. © The Author 2016.


Lotspeich E.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Kitts K.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Kitts K.,AIT Laboratories | Goodpaster J.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012

It is a common misconception that the amount of explosive is the chief contributor to the quantity of vapor that is available to trained canines. In fact, this quantity (known as odor availability) depends not only on the amount of explosive material, but also the container volume, explosive vapor pressure and temperature. In order to better understand odor availability, headspace experiments were conducted and the results were compared to theory. The vapor-phase concentrations of three liquid explosives (nitromethane, nitroethane and nitropropane) were predicted using the Ideal Gas Law for containers of various volumes that are in use for canine testing. These predictions were verified through experiments that varied the amount of sample, the container size, and the temperature. These results demonstrated that the amount of sample that is needed to saturate different sized containers is small, predictable and agrees well with theory. In general, and as expected, once the headspace of a container is saturated, any subsequent increase in sample volume will not result in the release of more vapors. The ability of canines to recognize and alert to differing amounts of nitromethane has also been studied. In particular, it was found that the response of trained canines is independent of the amount of nitromethane present, provided it is a sufficient quantity to saturate the container in which it is held. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Plasencia A.M.A.,Washington University in St. Louis | Mowry J.,Indiana University | Smith J.,Indiana University | Quigley K.,AIT Laboratories
Clinical Toxicology | Year: 2014

Context. Fentanyl patches are intended for transdermal use to treat pain. However, these patches have been abused by ingestion, offering a unique mode of drug delivery with unknown drug release characteristics.Objectives. In vitro fentanyl release from patches in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid was evaluated.Materials and methods. Ten 75 mcg/hr fentanyl transdermal patches (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc., Morgantown, WV), simulated gastric fluid without enzymes, and USP simulated intestinal fluid (Ricca Chemical Company, Arlington, TX) were obtained. Each fentanyl patch was placed into either 100 mL of simulated gastric fluid or 100 mL of simulated intestinal fluid. Flasks were agitated at 24 rpm while incubated at 36.8°C. Fluid was sampled at time zero and 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after submersion. Fentanyl was assayed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (AIT Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN).Results. An average of 239 mcg and 1,962 mcg of fentanyl was released into gastric fluid and 338 mcg and 3,139 mcg into intestinal fluid in 5 min and 3 h, respectively. An average of 26% and 41% of 7.65 mg of fentanyl contained within the 75 mcg/hr patch was released into gastric and intestinal fluid in 3 h, respectively (p = 0.169, Student's t-test).Discussion. Our results demonstrate fentanyl release within 5 min of submersion.Conclusion. These results help support the potential rapid onset of clinical compromise reported and are relevant to the design of future pharmacokinetic studies of fentanyl release from transdermal patches. Copyright © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Milman G.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse | Schwope D.M.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse | Schwilke E.W.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse | Schwilke E.W.,AIT Laboratories | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Oral fluid (OF) testing is increasingly important for drug treatment, workplace, and drugged-driving programs. There is interest in predicting plasma or whole-blood concentrations from OF concentrations; however, the relationship between these matrices is incompletely characterized because of few controlled drug-administration studies. METHODS: Ten male daily cannabis smokers received around-the-clock escalating 20-mg oral Δ 9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, dronabinol) doses (40-120 mg/day) for 8 days. Plasma and OF samples were simultaneously collected before, during, and after dosing. OF THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) were quantified by GC-MS at 0.5-μg/L, 0.5-μg/L, and 7.5-ng/L limits of quantification (LOQs), respectively. In plasma, the LOQs were 0.25 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 0.5 μg/L for 11-hydroxy-THC. RESULTS: Despite multiple oral THC administrations each day and increasing plasma THC concentrations, OF THC concentrations generally decreased over time, reflecting primarily previously self-administered smoked cannabis. The logarithms of the THC concentrations in oral fluid and plasma were not significantly correlated (r= -0.10; P = 0.065). The OF and plasma THCCOOH concentrations, albeit with 1000-fold higher concentrations in plasma, increased throughout dosing. The logarithms of OF and plasma THCCOOH concentrations were significantly correlated (r = 0.63; P < 0.001), although there was high interindividual variation. A high OF/plasma THC ratio and a high OF THC/THCCOOH ratio indicated recent cannabis smoking. CONCLUSIONS: OF monitoring does not reliably detect oral dronabinol intake. The time courses of THC and THCCOOH concentrations in plasma and OF were different after repeated oralTHCdoses, and high interindividual variation was observed. For these reasons, OF cannabinoid concentrations cannot predict concurrent plasma concentrations. © 2011 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.


Shanks K.G.,AIT Laboratories | Behonick G.S.,AIT Laboratories | Dahn T.,AIT Laboratories | Terrel A.,AIT Laboratories
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Synthetic cannabinoids are a group of compounds that are structurally diverse and are commonly found in various herbal incense and potpourri blends, which are sold in convenience stores, smoke shops and over the Internet. During the past few years, multiple state and federal legislations have been enacted controlling various subsets of these compounds that have been detected in compound categories generally considered the first and second product generations. As shown in previous studies, as compounds become controlled, new compounds emerge and become prevalent. We report on the emergence and prevalence of five different compounds (A796,260, MAM- 2201, UR-144, URB597 and XLR-11) in the state of Indiana through their qualitative detection in solid-dosage herbal products via rapid solvent extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ToF). We demonstrate the use of UPLC/ToF to be a suitable tool in the identification of these substances in a crime laboratory or forensic laboratory setting, which ultimately enables a laboratory to design assays for the detection of specific analytes in biological specimens in regard to regional trends and prevalence. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Shanks K.G.,AIT Laboratories | Dahn T.,AIT Laboratories | Terrell A.R.,AIT Laboratories
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2012

Synthetic cannabinoids have been detected in various herbal blends sold legally in convenience stores, smoke shops, and on the Internet. Many of these compounds have extreme forensic significance. We developed and validated a rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of trace concentrations of two of these compounds, JWH-018 and JWH-073, in human blood. Samples underwent liquid-liquid extraction at pH 10.2 into ethyl ether. Tandem mass spectrometry was performed in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring using two transitions and one calculated ion transition ratio for each analyte. Deuterated analogs were used as internal standards. Total run time was 2.6 min. The linear dynamic range was 0.05-50 ng/mL with a limit of detection of 0.01 ng/mL for each analyte. Intra-run imprecision (at two different concentration levels, 2 and 8 ng/mL) was 3.9-10.3% for JWH-018 and 3.5-6.2% for JWH-073. Inter-run imprecision was 6.5-7.2% for JWH-018 and 4.8-5.5% for JWH-073. Intra-run accuracy was 95.9-112.7% for JWH-018 and 92.6-104.7% for JWH-073. Inter-run accuracy was 99.1-107.0% for JWH-018 and 97.7-102.0% for JWH-073. Carryover, exogenous drug interferences, ion suppression and matrix selectivity were also assessed. The method has been applied to postmortem forensic casework received by the laboratory and has proven to be robust and reliable. Concentrations of authentic samples have ranged from 0.1-199 ng/mL for JWH-018 and 0.1-68.3 ng/mL for JWH-073. © The Author [2012]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Shanks K.G.,AIT Laboratories | Dahn T.,AIT Laboratories | Behonick G.,AIT Laboratories | Terrell A.,AIT Laboratories
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2012

Various "legal high" products were tested for synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic stimulants to qualitatively determine the active ingredient(s). Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF) was used to monitor the non-biological specimens utilizing a customized panel of 651 compounds comprised of synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic stimulants and other related drugs. Over the past year, the United States Drug Enforcement Agency has controlled five synthetic cannabinoid compounds (JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-200, CP- 47,497 and CP-47,497-C8) and three synthetic stimulant compounds (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, mephedrone and methylone) that were previously reported to be detected in these legal high products. Through our analyses of first and second generation products, it was shown that many of these banned substances are no longer used and have been replaced by other derivatives that are federally legal. Since enactment of the federal bans on synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic stimulants, 4.9% of the products analyzed at our facility contained at least one controlled substance. The remaining 95.1% of products contained only uncontrolled drugs. We demonstrate the UPLC-TOF methodology to be a powerful tool in the qualitative identification of these designer drugs, thus enabling a laboratory to keep current with the drugs that are being sold as these designer products. © The Author [2012]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Loading AIT Laboratories collaborators
Loading AIT Laboratories collaborators