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Watanabe K.,Chiba Institute of Science | Ikegaya H.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Hirayama K.,Toyokohan Co. | Motani H.,Chiba University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

ABO genotyping is often performed to identify the blood type of decomposed samples, which is difficult to be determined by a serological test. In this study, we developed a simple method for ABO genotyping using a DNA chip. In this method, polymerase chain reaction-amplified and fluorescent-labeled fragments in the ABO gene and primate-specific D17Z1 were hybridized with DNA probes on a chip designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ABO gene and part of the D17Z1 sequence. Using blood samples from 42 volunteers and 10 animal species, we investigated whether the chip could be used to detect SNPs in the ABO gene and the D17Z1 sequence. This method was then applied to various forensic samples, and it was confirmed that this method was suitable for the simultaneous analyses of ABO genotyping and species identification. This method fulfills the recent need for the development of rapid and convenient methods for criminal investigations. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Minami M.,Aiseikai Yamashina Hospital | Minami M.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

We can now control hepatitis B virus infection by continuously administering nucleoside and nucleotide analogues such as entecavir and tenofovir. These drugs are generally safe and sufficiently effective, but future drugs are needed that can show off-treatment efficacy—in other words, eradication of latent hepatitis B virus DNA (covalently closed circular DNA) in the hepatocytes. This article is an overview of new drugs under development and some novel strategies to inhibit hepatitis B virus proliferation. © 2015, Springer Japan.

Fukuda T.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Hamaguchi M.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Kojima T.,Asahi University | Hashimoto Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Liver International | Year: 2016

Background & Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in non-overweight individuals with NAFLD. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study of 4629 participants who were enrolled in a health check-up programme for more than 10years. A standardized questionnaire and abdominal ultrasonography were used to diagnose NAFLD. A cut-off point of BMI 23kg/m2 was used to define overweight (≥23.0kg/m2) or non-overweight (<23.0kg/m2). The primary outcome was incident T2DM. Results: Over a mean follow-up of 12.8years, 351 participants (7.6%) developed T2DM. The incidence rate of T2DM was 3.2% in the non-overweight without NAFLD group, 14.4% in the non-overweight with NAFLD group, 8.0% in the overweight without NAFLD group and 26.4% in the overweight with NAFLD group. The adjusted hazard ratios for incident T2DM compared with the non-overweight without NAFLD group were as follows: 3.59 (95% CI: 2.14-5.76) in the non-overweight with NAFLD group, 1.99 (95% CI: 1.47-2.69) in the overweight without NAFLD group and 6.77 (95% CI: 5.17-8.91) in the overweight with NAFLD group. The adjusted hazard ratio in the non-overweight with NAFLD group was significantly higher than that in the overweight without NAFLD group or that in the non-overweight without NAFLD group. Conclusions: Non-overweight individuals with NAFLD had a high risk of incident T2DM. Diagnosis of NAFLD is important in non-overweight individuals, and therefore it might be necessary to follow their health conditions on a long-term basis after detection of NAFLD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Harada K.H.,Kyoto University | Niisoe T.,Kyoto University | Imanaka M.,Kyoto University | Takahashi T.,Kyoto University | And 28 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Radiation dose rates were evaluated in three areas neighboring a restricted area within a 20- to 50-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in August-September 2012 and projected to 2022 and 2062. Study participants wore personal dosimeters measuring external dose equivalents, almost entirely from deposited radionuclides (groundshine). External dose rate equivalents owing to the accident averaged 1.03, 2.75, and 1.66 mSv/y in the village of Kawauchi, the Tamano area of Soma, and the Haramachi area of Minamisoma, respectively. Internal dose rates estimated from dietary intake of radiocesium averaged 0.0058, 0.019, and 0.0088 mSv/y in Kawauchi, Tamano, and Haramachi, respectively. Dose rates from inhalation of resuspended radiocesium were lower than 0.001 mSv/y. In 2012, the average annual doses from radiocesium were close to the average background radiation exposure (2 mSv/y) in Japan. Accounting only for the physical decay of radiocesium, mean annual dose rates in 2022 were estimated as 0.31, 0.87, and 0.53 mSv/y in Kawauchi, Tamano, and Haramachi, respectively. The simple and conservative estimates are comparable with variations in the background dose, and unlikely to exceed the ordinary permissible dose rate (1 mSv/y) for the majority of the Fukushima population. Health risk assessment indicates that post-2012 doses will increase lifetime solid cancer, leukemia, and breast cancer incidences by 1.06%, 0.03% and 0.28% respectively, in Tamano. This assessment was derived from short-term observation with uncertainties and did not evaluate the firstyear dose and radioiodine exposure. Nevertheless, this estimate provides perspective on the long-term radiation exposure levels in the three regions.

Imamura S.,Aiseikai Yamashina Hospital | Sugimoto M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Kanemasa K.,Center for Digestive and Liver Diseases | Sumida Y.,Center for Digestive and Liver Diseases | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia) | Year: 2010

Background and Aim: The prevalence of allergic disorders, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis has been increasing, and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been decreasing. Chronic bacterial infection during childhood is reported to protect the development of allergic diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify whether H. pylori infection influences the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, which has become a serious social problem, especially in the developed countries. Methods: We initially investigated the association between the prevalence of H. pylori and pollinosis symptoms in 97 healthy volunteers. We had investigated the association between the serum H. pylori-immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies and specific IgE antibodies for pollen, mites, and house dust in 211 consecutive patients. Results: There were 52.2% (36/69) of H. pylori-negative volunteers with allergic symptoms, which was significantly higher than H. pylori-positive volunteers (14.3%, 4/28, P < 0.05). The risk of pollinosis symptoms by H. pylori infection was 0.148 (95% confidence interval): 0.046-0.475, P < 0.05). The prevalence of H. pylori infection increased according to age, whereas that of specific IgE-positive patients gradually decreased. Among the IgE-positive patients, the prevalence of H. pylori-negative patients was significantly higher than H. pylori-positive patients who were younger in age (P < 0.05). Conclusion: H. pylori infection decreased the pollinosis effects, especially among the younger volunteers. However, the prevalence of pollinosis in patients who were 50 years or older were almost same between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients; therefore, the recent increase of pollinosis might relate to not only H. pylori infection, but also change in social environment. © 2010 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

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