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Ramalingam K.,Airports Authority of India | Indulkar C.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Power Systems | Year: 2015

The Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) are the Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). PEVs will dominate the transportation in the personal mobility mode and in the automobile market by 2030. Widespread adoption of PEVs brings potential, social and economic benefits. The focus on promoting use of electric vehicles in road transportation is very essential to meet the climate change targets and manage the ever hiking prices of fast depleting fossil fuels. However, there are lots of uncertainties in the market about the acceptability of PEVs by customers due to the capital and operation costs and inadequate infrastructure for charging systems. The penetration level in the market is not encouraging, in spite of incentives offered by Governments. Manufacturers are also not sure of the market, even though predictions are strong and attractive. Major manufacturers, however, are already ready with their plans to introduce electric vehicles to mass market. The use of PEVs has both technological and market issues and impacts. Series of research works have been reported to address the issues related to technologies and its impacts on political, economic, environmental, infrastructural and market potential aspects. Works dealing with suitable infrastructure such as charging stations and use of smart grids are reported. These steps are aimed to bring down the capital and operational costs that are comparable to the costing of conventional transport vehicles. The penetration level of PEVs in transportation will accordingly increase and keep the climate targets met and conserve fossil fuels for use in other economic segments. An overview on these issues is presented in this chapter. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Singapore. Source


Vyas B.M.,Ml Sukhadia University | Sunda S.,Airports Authority of India
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2012

An annular solar eclipse occurred over the Indian subcontinent during the afternoon hours of January 15, 2010. This event was unique in the sense that solar activity was minimum and the eclipse period coincides with the peak ionization time at the Indian equatorial and low latitudes. The number of GPS receivers situated along the path of solar eclipse were used to investigate the response of total electron content (TEC) under the influence of this solar eclipse. These GPS receivers are part of the Indian Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) named as 'GAGAN' (GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation) program. The eight GPS stations located over the wide range of longitudes allows us to differentiate between the various factors induced due to solar eclipse over the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere. The effect of the eclipse was detected in diurnal variations of TEC at all the stations along the eclipse path. The solar eclipse has altered the ionospheric behavior along its path by inducing atmospheric gravity waves, localized counter-electrojet and attenuation of solar radiation intensity. These three factors primarily control the production, loss and transport of plasma over the equatorial and low latitudes. The localized counter-electrojet had inhibited the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the longitude belt of 72°E-85°E. Thus, there was a negative deviation of the order of 20-40% at the equatorial anomaly stations lying in this 'inhibited EIA region'. The negative deviation of only 10-20% is observed for the stations lying outside the 'inhibited EIA region'. The pre-eclipse effect in the form of early morning enhancement of TEC associated with atmospheric gravity waves was also observed during this solar eclipse. More clear and distinctive spatial and temporal variations of TEC were detected along the individual satellite passes. It is also observed that TEC starts responding to the eclipse after 30 min from start of eclipse and the delay of the maximum TEC deviation from normal trend with respect to the maximum phase of the eclipse was close to one hour in the solar eclipse path. © 2011 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Indulkar C.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Ramalingam K.,Airports Authority of India
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013

This paper proposes a Monte Carlo analysis for forecasting the MW load of plug-in electric vehicles. The method considers the number of vehicles in a city, Wh/km, km per vehicle, vehicles on chargers, and power factor of chargers. Using the Monte Carlo method, the range of the MW load is forecasted, considering the associated ranges of the various parameters and variables. © 2013 Springer International Publishing. Source


Sunda S.,Airports Authority of India | Vyas B.M.,Mls University | Khekale P.V.,Space Applications Center
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2013

The total electron content (TEC) measurements from a network of GPS receivers were analyzed to investigate the storm time spatial response of ionosphere over the Indian longitude sector. The GPS receivers from the GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) network which are uniquely located around the ∼77 E longitude are used in the present study so as to get the complete latitudinal coverage from the magnetic equator to low mid-latitude region. We have selected the most intense storms but of moderate intensity (-100 nT < Dst < -50 nT) which occurred during the unusually extremely low solar activity conditions in 2007-2009. Though the storms are of moderate intensity, their effects on equatorial to low mid-latitude ionosphere are found to be very severe as TEC deviations are more than 100% during all the storms studied. Interesting results in terms of spatial distribution of positive/negative effects during the main/early recovery phase of storms are noticed. The maximum effect was observed at crest region during two storms whereas another two storms had maximum effect near the low mid-latitude region. The associated mechanisms like equatorial electrodynamics and neutral dynamics are segregated and explained using the TIMED/GUVI and EEJ data during these storms. The TEC maps are generated to investigate the storm time development/inhibition of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). © 2013 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Sunda S.,Airports Authority of India | Sunda S.,Space Applications Center | Vyas B.M.,Mohanlal Sukhadia University
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2013

The global wave number 4 structure in the Indian longitudinal region spanning from ∼70 to 95°E forming the upward slope of the peak in the total electron content (TEC) are reported along the crest of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The continuous and simultaneous measurements from five GPS stations of GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) network are used in this study. The long-term database (2004-2012) is utilized for examining the local time, seasonal, and solar cycle dependency on the longitudinal variations of TEC. Our results confirm the existence of longitudinal variations of TEC in accordance with wave number 4 longitudinal structure including its strength. The results suggest that these variations, in general, start to develop at ∼09 LT, achieve maximum strength at 12-15 LT, and decay thereafter, the decay rate depending on the season. They are more pronounced in equinoctial season followed by summer and winter. The longitudinal variations persist beyond midnight in equinox seasons, whereas in winter, they are conspicuously absent. Interestingly, they also exhibit significant solar cycle dependence in the solstices, whereas in the equinoxes, they are independent of solar activity. The comparison of crest-to-trough ratio (CTR) in the eastern (92°E) and western (72°E) extreme longitudes reveals higher CTR on the eastern side than over the western extreme, suggesting the role of nonmigrating tides in modulating the ExB vertical drift and the consequential EIA crest formation. Key Points Longitudinal variations of low latitude ionosphere over India are studied Longitude gradient of TEC is computed to quantify its strength Local time, seasonal, and solar cycle dependency is observed ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

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