Livonia, MI, United States

Airflow Sciences Corporation
Livonia, MI, United States

Airflow science Corporation is an engineering consulting company based in Livonia, Michigan that specializes in the solution of industrial fluid flow problems. While it is particularly known for work in Power generation, its customers come from many industries across a wide geographical regions, and problems are solved using a variety of engineering techniques. Thus, the company is best defined by the type of problems solved, rather than by traditional industry or consultant categories. Wikipedia.

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Franklin J.D.,Wayne State University | Franklin J.D.,Airflow Sciences Corporation | Lee J.S.,Yonsei University
Computers and Fluids | Year: 2010

A high quality and efficient interpolation method for polyhedral/polygonal control volume simulation data is presented. The proposed method utilizes a non-ambiguous and efficient mesh decomposition technique. A pseudo-Laplacian is used to solve an optimization problem to approximate the variation between discrete data points in a linear fashion. The interpolation method guarantees continuous interpolation data throughout the control volume mesh topology and faithfully reproduces the input control volume data. The interpolation connectivity is structured to mimic the interpolation methods utilized by the control volume discretization. The method only requires the geometry of the input data to perform interpolations. This allows key interpolation data to be calculated once and stored for efficient interpolations. The benefits of the proposed algorithm are highlighted by an interpolation test case which demonstrates the benefits of the current method compared to a popular interpolation method currently used in industry. Since the proposed method is designed to augment an existing mesh data structure it can be used to update existing control volume software. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

An improved non-isotropic momentum mapping method for the Eulerian/Lagrangian coupling algorithm is proposed. The concept of strong influence and dependence between the Eulerian and Lagrangian reference frames is the focus of the proposed method. The mapping technique is designed for cell centered control volume based algorithms and applicable to arbitrary polyhedral/polygonal mesh topologies. Eulerian to Lagrangian interpolation methods are reviewed to highlight the importance of consistently treating the influence and dependence between the Eulerian to Lagrangian interpolation technique and the Lagrangian to Eulerian momentum mapping method. A review of non-isotropic momentum source term treatment for the SIMPLE algorithm is discussed along with its importance to the overall algorithm stability. A gas/particulate test case is presented to compare the stability of the proposed momentum mapping method to the commonly used injection technique. The results of the test case demonstrate the importance of consistently treating the interpolation and mapping process and shows that the proposed method leads to a more stable Eulerian/Lagrangian multiphase algorithm. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

Banka A.L.,Airflow Sciences Corporation | Lee T.M.,Airflow Sciences Corporation
ASM International - 27th Heat Treating Society Conference 2013 | Year: 2013

While many quench tanks use propellers to promote fluid motion, other systems pump the quenchant through a series of small nozzles. Although propeller based systems are in one sense more straightforward, the direct connection to external drive systems and the internal flow control devices put considerable constraints on system design. In contrast, pumped systems require less space inside the quench tank and provide the opportunity to more directly apply the quench flow to the part surfaces. Due to piping system losses, however, less agitation may be provided for a given amount of input power. As a comparison of these approaches, CFD analyses are performed of idealized propeller and nozzle systems to determine their ability to generate flow for a given input power. Copyright © 2013 ASM International®. All rights reserved.

Paul J.C.,Airflow Sciences Corporation
Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics | Year: 2016

A three-part study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of retrofit aerodynamic drag reducing devices on the fuel consumption and economics of open-top, bulk commodity, gondola and hopper rail cars in unit train service. Specific applications included trains transporting coal from mines to power plants. During the first part of the study wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics were combined with an extensive literature search to rank the drag reducing effectiveness of a variety of devices including covers, internal baffles, end treatments, gap fillers, car side geometry, and underbody modifications. During the second portion of the study, three approaches were utilized to determine fuel savings associated with each aerodynamic retrofit device. These included two classical methods and a newly-developed train energy model. Results were validated using fuel consumption data provided by a U.S. Class I railroad. During the third portion of the study, an economic analysis of the candidate devices was completed which included the following parameters: weights of the retrofit devices, manufacturing and installation costs, drag reduction effectiveness, and projected return on investment. The study predicted round trip fuel savings, due to the addition of aerodynamic modifications to open-top rail cars in unit-train service, ranging from 2.7 to 19.9% and return on investment durations as short as 2 years, depending upon the type of device, route, and car utilization. Itwas shown that economic viability of car modifications depends only partly on aerodynamic performance. Some of the modifications exhibiting high levels of drag reduction were eliminated from additional consideration due to high associated costs and negative impact on payload capacity. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Banka A.L.,Airflow Sciences Corporation | Mackenzie D.S.,Houghton International Inc.
Thermal Process Modeling - Proceedings from the 5th International Conference on Thermal Process Modeling and Computer Simulation, ICTPMCS 2014 | Year: 2014

The use of submerged nozzles to provide agitation is commonplace in the design of quench tanks. The details of submerged nozzle agitation designs can vary considerably, however, and the effectiveness of any given design is not known. The purpose of this investigation is to use Computation Fluid Dynamics to understand the effects of several key parameters, including header design, nozzle design, and velocity on the apparent flow field in a quench system. A limited number of those parameters will be investigated, and the resultant flow fields will be presented. Copyright © 2014 ASM International ® All rights reserved.

Lee T.,Airflow Sciences Corporation | Banka A.,Airflow Sciences Corporation
Thermal Process Modeling - Proceedings from the 5th International Conference on Thermal Process Modeling and Computer Simulation, ICTPMCS 2014 | Year: 2014

Achieving the desired hardness and uniformity of quenched parts following heat treatment requires sufficient agitation within the quench tank. Many existing quench tanks were designed without a detailed consideration of the flow patterns generated within the quench tank, and so may suffer from poor flow through the load. For an existing quench facility, improvement to the as- quenched material properties was sought through a planned upgrade to the quench system. In order to ensure that the revised design would be effective, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of the quench tank was performed. Those analyses showed that while the revisions would result in significant improvements, there would be notable variations in fluid velocities across the load that could lead to distortion and variable properties. Additional design iterations were performed to further improve the agitation design and investigate the effect of loading pattern on the uniformity of flow through the load. The CFD analysis process is outlined along with results from key simulations in the development of the revised design. Copyright © 2014 ASM International ® All rights reserved.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2011

ABSTRACT: Development and validation of a CFD method for determining heat flux rates during quenching of aircraft components is proposed. Current methods of managing the bulk residual stresses of machined aircraft forgings rely on experimental determinations of quenching heat fluxes that are costly, time-consuming, and subject to several types of errors. The proposed Phase I scope of work includes the development of several novel routines for the simulation of all modes of boiling heat transfer as well as the transition between these modes. Initial validations will be based on published data for each portion of the simulation method. The final validation will be based on new data collected on a representative part in a typical quench facility. Analysis of the quench data will include calculation of the experimentally determined heat fluxes and prediction of residual stresses based on CFD and test-based heat flux rates. Completion of this effort will establish the feasibility of developing a practical CFD-based tool for management of bulk residual stress. BENEFIT: A well developed CFD tool will provide more accurate and complete data, and will avoid the time and cost involved in manufacturing prototype parts for use in heat flux determinations. The higher quality data will be useful in developing improved manufacturing techniques, which will allow for the development of near-net shape forgings techniques. These improvements will directly impact the buy-to-fly ratio for these parts (the ratio of the forged weight to the final part weight) providing a direct reduction in manufacturing costs. In addition to extensive applications within the military and commercial aerospace communities, the proposed tool could be widely applied within the broader manufacturing industries. Data from 2006 suggests that the size of the commercial US heat treating market is greater than $20 billion. Improvement in the quench quality for the high value end of that market will represent a significant improvement in quality along with a reduction in scrap and rework rates.

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.01M | Year: 2012

ABSTRACT: A proposal for a Phase II effort that continues the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based tool for the prediction of bulk residual stresses, started under the Phase I effort, is presented. The key objective in this proposal is to improve the numerical heat transfer methods explored in Phase I via experimentation, theoretical development, and validation. Small scale boiling experiments are suggested for improving the understanding of sub cooled oil boiling heat transfer. In particular, specific experiments are proposed for improving the understanding of nucleate site density, bubble departure size, transition boiling characteristics and film boiling vapor thickness. The experimental activities will provide an additional foundation that will be used to improve the understanding of the physics of boiling oil and help determine improved sub grid scale heat transfer relationships. Additional data for validating the methods will be collected in a pilot-scale facility on a full-size and representative part. An initial release of the software tool is expected at the end of the project, providing a solid foundation for a commercial CFD-based software product. BENEFIT: The primary benefits of the research outlined in this proposal is the development of an engineering software tool capable of predicting heat transfer on a forged part during the quenching process. Currently, there are no Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software tools available for reliably approximating heat transfer during an oil quenching process. The proposed simulation tool is expected to improve the quality and reduce the costs of manufactured metal parts. In particular, it is expected that the software will provide the necessary tools for engineers to reduce post-heat treat machining and improve the uniformity of part material properties. The commercial product resulting from the proposed research will be the foundations of a software tool that can be applied to a number of parts manufactured for private and military applications. Parts for the military such as turbine disks, large bulk heads, helicopter gears and large gun barrels are some of the items that would benefit from design work that included the application of the software. The automotive industry utilizes large quantities of heat treated parts. Since the corporate culture in this industry is to design in part quality rather than inspecting for the desired part quality it could also benefit from the proposed design tool.

Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

Recent advances in the design of products and processes have been based in large part on advanced numerical simulation techniques used by the computer aided engineering community. These approaches are applied to the development of cars, military hardware, food processing operations, pollution control equipment, and nuclear reactors for power generation. With current tools, creation of the high quality computational grids that form the underpinnings of these methods is arduous, and can often be the most time-consuming step of the process. Current methods for creating computational meshes either favor highly automated approaches that result in low quality meshes and low fidelity simulations, or user-intensive methods that provide high quality results requiring much more time. The gulf between a high level of automation and high quality results will be bridged by adopting advanced cell topologies along with novel optimization techniques. The Phase I effort will demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by developing initial versions of the meshing algorithms, which will then be applied to several computational geometries. Objective quality criteria will be used to compare the resulting meshes to those generated with commercially-available meshing software using both user-directed and automated approaches. Adoption of the proposed meshing algorithms provides the opportunity to significantly reduce the resources needed for the analysis and development of improved products and processes across a range of industries. This will result in reduced development cycles, improved products, or both. The software resulting from the development of these methods can be embodied as stand-alone programs, as well as software libraries that can be incorporated into other software products.

Banka A.L.,Airflow Sciences Corporation | Franklin J.D.,Airflow Sciences Corporation
ASM International - 28th Heat Treating Society Conference, HEAT TREATING 2015 | Year: 2015

Extensive steady-state flow boiling heat transfer data have been collected for both water and oil using a test rig that allows for control of the primary variables of fluid velocity, fluid temperature, surface temperature, and surface orientation. Using the resulting database, functional relationships for boiling heat transfer trends have been determined. These boiling heat transfer relationships have been incorporated into the Ansys-Fluent® commercial CFD package using a user-defined function (UDF). This software combination provides a simulation tool capable of approximating the quenching of metal parts by applying a situationally correct heat flux at each point in the part surface throughout the quench cycle. No manipulation of model tuning parameters is required. Simulation predictions are compared to test data collected for a cylindrical forging. © 2015 ASM International®.

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