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Bentayeb M.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS | Stempfelet M.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS | Wagner V.,French Institute for Public Health Surveillance InVS | Zins M.,University of Versailles | And 14 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

Introduction: Exposure to air pollution has been associated to mortality and morbidity in numerous studies. However, few studies assessed retrospectively long-term exposure at a fine spatial scale. Aims: To contribute to the assessment of long-term exposure to air pollution of participants from the French GAZEL cohort, we estimated atmospheric PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, C6H6 and O3 levels at 2km resolution over France, from 1989 to 2008. Methods: The spatiotemporal concentrations of selected air pollutants were estimated at a fine scale by combining (1) the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model (2) mesh refinement and (3) data assimilation with geostatistical analyzes. Assimilated concentrations were assigned to participants according to their residential zip codes, taking into account residential history. Results: Despite a decreasing trend in concentrations for all pollutant concentrations, levels remained high in some French regions, especially for PM, NO2 and O3.Annual median concentrations at the cohort participants' zip code of PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3 were decreased from 1989 to 2008 by 27%, 29%, 40% and 16%, respectively. The largest decreases occurred for SO2 (86%) and C6H6 (85%).Validation showed high correlations between observations and final modeled data (R above 0.75 in 2007) for PM10, NO2 and O3. Conclusion: The modeling process enabled us to assess air pollution over 20 years (1989-2008) at a fine-geographical scale, with acceptable agreement being found between observations and models for all pollutants. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Cross-border regions of Franco-Italian space ALCOTRA (Liguria, Piedmont, PACA, Rhône-Alpes and Aosta Valley) are all faced with a deteriorated air quality. Faced with this major health issue that concerns 17 millions people, these regions have chosen to unite under the AERA project to find solutions together. This project was intended to harmonize the methods and tools for monitoring and propose new decision support elements for local actors. This is a first step to build a cross-border governance terms for developing common strategies to improve air quality. This project has the following objectives: - Compare and pool various tools for monitoring air quality: access to network data measurement, shared emissions inventory and a common air quality chemical transport model. - Strengthen improvement air quality plans through the identification of common measures: state of regulations and policy actions taken in France and Italy, the development of common indicators, implementation of pilot projects. - Develop a cross-border strategy awareness and citizen involvement. Reconciling development of wood energy and air quality: the Rhône-Alpes region has simulated the effectiveness of development scenarios of wood energy while limiting their impact on air quality. The main conclusions emphasize that the implementation of an ambitious framing of wood heating individual policy favouring both efficient appliances (such as Flamme verte) and fuel quality (especially wood pellet form) led to a significant reduction in emissions of pollutants, including fine particles, and a significant improvement in air quality in the Alcotra aera and especially in the Alpine valleys. According to prospective models considered, a common active policy on wood energy would prevent 500,000 inhabitants of the area of Alcotra to be exposed to exceeding regulatory values for 2020. The discussions initiated under the AERA project will continue. Thus, PART'AERA project, led by Air Rhône-Alpes and attended the majority of partners, started in January 2013 for two years. It aims to share the skills of players ALCOTRA regarding metrology fine particles space to better identify the origin and dispersion in the atmosphere of the Alps.

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