Morin J.-P.,EA4651 Aliments |
Preterre D.,Center Detude Et Of Recherche Technologique En Aerothermodynamique Et Moteurs |
Gouriou F.,Center Detude Et Of Recherche Technologique En Aerothermodynamique Et Moteurs |
Delmas V.,Air Normand |
And 7 more authors.
Pollution Atmospherique | Year: 2013
Ship loading with food grains emits important amount of particulate matter in the close vicinity of Rouen harbor terminal. The question was to identify beside the visual aspect of emissions (particle wakes, deposits and dirtiness) a potential danger for the populations living in the close vicinity of the harbor terminals involved in food grain ship loading. The study brings information concerning size number and mass distribution of the particles, the particle content for pesticide, mycotoxins and microorganism flora (bacteria, yeasts and fungi). Bacterial associated danger has been assessed using a dedicated virulence test.
Bobbia M.,Air Normand |
Jollois F.-X.,University of Paris Descartes |
Poggi J.-M.,University Paris - Sud |
Poggi J.-M.,University of Paris Descartes |
Portier B.,INSA Rouen
Environmetrics | Year: 2011
The problem is to quantify local and background contributions to PM10 concentrations in Haute-Normandie region. We use measures of pollution variables on a network of 11 monitoring sites, completed by meteorological variables, during 2004-2009. Random forests (RFs), a recent statistical method, are used to put in evidence the marginal effects of explanatory variables, and to classify parameters of influence on PM10 pollution in different situations: roadside, urban background, industrial, and rural. The local pollution is the most important source and is marked by the classic tracers NO and NO2 as urban activity pollution, and SO2 as industrial one. The entire process of statistical quantification of local and background contributions, without neither direct information nor measurements about sources, can be divided in three main steps. The first one is to classify the explanatory variables (pollutants and meteorological parameters) into five groups: pollutants from urban activity, pollutants from industrial activity, and three groups of meteorological variables. The second step is to handle the specificity of a rural and coastal station for which there is a priori no local pollution sources, to use it as a marker of the background pollution. The final step consists of quantifying the local and background contributions to the PM10 pollution, using only markers of urban and industrial activities and PM10 background. As a synthetic conclusion, it appears as often seen in publications about other geographical locations, that the local part contributes half of the total pollution. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Favez O.,INERIS |
Petit J.-E.,INERIS |
Petit J.-E.,French Climate and Environment Sciences Laboratory |
Bessagnet B.,INERIS |
And 20 more authors.
Pollution Atmospherique | Year: 2012
This paper aims at gaining an insight into the PM10 daily threshold (50 ug/m3) exceedances measured by French regional air quality monitoring networks for the last four years. As almost three quarter of these exceedances happens to occur between November and April, we focus here on such winter (broadly speaking) pollution episodes. The deployment of monitoring devices allowing for a proper account of semi-volatile material within PM10 was achieved concomitantly to the development particulate pollution episodes largely influenced by ammonium nitrate (which is semi-volatile) in March-April 2007. Since then, such pollution events are frequently observed at this period of the year, notably due to stable meteorological conditions favoring the condensation of semi-volatile material into the particulate phase along with the resumption of manure spreading, which constitutes a major source of ammonium nitrate gaseous precursors (at least at some points of the year). Such pollution events, which are also related to combustion emissions (among which mobile sources) are typically preceded, from November to February, by frequent daily threshold exceedances with potentially significant influences of biomass burning (e.g. residential wood burning). The winter period is also impacted by long range transport episodes, corresponding notably to increases of ammonium sulfate relative abundances within PM10. Moreover, as traffic sites are generally the first ones showing PM10 exceedances due the increment of direct emissions and resuspension processes, mobile sources are also considered as a major target for action plans. Finally, it is underlined that the occurrence of daily threshold exceedances is highly influenced by meteorological conditions, so that the yearly number of these exceedances shows well-marked inter-annual variations, with 2009 and 2011 (and 2012, but not shown here) being significantly more polluted than 2008 and 2010. The on-going development of efficient forecasting systems still suffer lacks of detailed emission inventories and strong knowledge on the physical and chemical transformation processes of particles and their gaseous precursors within the boundary layer.
Bobbia M.,Air Normand |
Misiti M.,CNRS Mathematics Laboratory |
Misiti Y.,CNRS Mathematics Laboratory |
Poggi J.-M.,CNRS Mathematics Laboratory |
And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Pollution Research | Year: 2015
We consider hourly PM10 measurements from 22 monitoring stations located in Basse–Normandie and Haute–Normandie regions (France) and also in the neighboring regions. All considered monitoring stations are either urban background stations or rural ones. The paper focuses on the statistical detection of outliers of the hourly PM10 concentrations from a spatial point of view. The general strategy uses a jackknife type approach and is based on the comparison of the actual measurement with some robust spatial prediction. Two spatial predictions are considered: the first one is based on the median of the concentrations of the closest neighboring stations which directly consider weighted concentrations while the second one is based on kriging increments, instead of more traditional pseudo–innovations. The two methods are applied to the PM10 monitoring network in Normandy and are fully implemented by Air Normand (the official association for air quality monitoring in Haute–Normandie) in the Measurements Quality Control process. Some numerical results are provided on recent data from January 1, 2013 to May 31, 2013 to illustrate and compare the two methods. © Author(s) 2015.
Michelot N.,Ministry in Charge of the Ecology |
Marchand C.,INERIS |
Ramalho O.,CSTB |
Delmas V.,Air Normand |
Carrega M.,Ministry in Charge of the Ecology
HVAC and R Research | Year: 2013
Indoor air quality monitoring in public premises, especially those hosting vulnerable populations such as children, was introduced in the second French national environment and health action plan and then regulated by the first "Grenelle Environnement" law, on August 3, 2009. A national pilot monitoring survey of indoor air quality in 310 French schools and day-care centers was performed in two phases from 2009 to 2011. This article is dedicated to the results of the first phase (2009 to 2010, in 160 schools and day-care centers), and another article is in preparation about the whole survey results. Formaldehyde, benzene, and air stuffiness were the targeted compounds. They were measured for 1-2 weeks during heating and non-heating seasons in each investigated building. The results of the first phase are presented in this article. They show, referring to the management values suggested by the French committee for public health, that air quality is acceptable in most establishments tested. Nonetheless, a few cases required additional investigations or corrective measures. Furthermore, the air stuffiness (based on carbon dioxide measurements) was found to be very high in 16% of the classrooms (up to 25% in elementary schools). In 47% of the elementary schools, at least one classroom had very high air stuffiness. The mayors and school principals were informed and provided with means to identify the main sources of pollution and to implement remediation actions. The outcomes of this research have led to another step toward mandatory indoor air quality monitoring of public premises in France. France is the first country to implement a routine and mandatory assessment of air quality in public buildings accommodating vulnerable people. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Harrou F.,Texas A&M University at Qatar |
Fillatre L.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis |
Bobbia M.,Air Normand |
Nikiforov I.,CNRS Risk Management Science and Technology
Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control | Year: 2013
Monitoring ozone concentrations is an essential requirement due to the adverse environmental and health effects of abnormal ozone pollution. The objective of this paper is twofold: first, to model ground level ozone concentrations, and second, to detect abnormal ozone measurements. Towards this end, a multidimensional Seasonal AutoRegressive Moving Average with eXogenous variable (SARMAX) model has been developed to describe ground level ozone concentrations. The database used to fit the models consists of two data sets collected from Upper Normandy region, France, via the network of air quality monitoring stations. A good description of the ambient ozone pollution may be a tool for facilitating detection of abnormalities in ozone measurements. The overarching goal of this paper is to detect abnormal pollution measurements caused by air pollution anomalies or malfunctioning sensors in the framework of regional ozone surveillance network. The proposed Constrained Generalized Likelihood Ratio (CGLR) anomaly detection scheme is successfully applied to collected data. The detection results of the proposed method are compared to that declared by Air Normand air monitoring association. © 2013 IEEE.
Perdriel S.,CAIRN Developpement |
Moussafir J.,ARIA Technologies |
Derognat C.,ARIA Technologies |
Cortinovis J.,AIR Normand
HARMO 2010 - Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes | Year: 2010
The industrial zone of Le Havre in the River Seine Estuary (France) is characterized by the presence of several major sources of SO2 emissions, with several refineries and a large power plant. The air quality in the area is under the supervision of the AIR NORMAND Air Quality Management Board, which operates an extended network of automatic stations. There were a large number of SO2 episodes during year 2007 when observed concentrations were above regulatory limits: this situation has driven the Regional Authority for Industry Research and Environment (DREAL) to undertake the detailed numerical simulation of all episodes, in order to determine with precision the emission reductions that had to be imposed to comply with EU regulations. The simulation of all the 77 episodes observed during year 2007 was performed, with a very high spatial resolution (down to 100m) and a time step of 15mn for averaged SO2 concentrations, using full 3D simulation tools. The SO2 emissions from all the main stacks of the "Top 3" industrial sources were defined on an hourly basis. A sequence of nested mesoscale meteorological models (MM5 + NSWIFT) was used to represent the flow over the Seine Estuary, and a 3D Lagrangian Dispersion model (SPRAY) was used to simulate the time dependent SO2 concentration distributions. The paper presents the comparisons between model results and measurements and the model evaluation conclusions, and focuses on the difficulties of high-resolution micro-meteorological modelling in weak winds and stable conditions in an Estuary situation, with topographic and sea breeze effects. A subset of the episodes for which the quality of the results was fairly good was selected and the results of the simulations for these cases have been actually applied to the computation of optimal emission reductions.