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Air Liquide S.A., or Air Liquide , is a French multinational company which supplies industrial gases and services to various industries including medical, chemical and electronic manufacturers. Founded in 1902, it is the world's second largest supplier of industrial gases by revenues and has operations in over 80 countries. It is headquartered in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France. Air Liquide owned the patent for Aqua-Lung until it time-expired.Although Air Liquide's headquarters are located in Paris, France, it also has a major site in Japan , as well as in Houston, TX, and Newark, DE, USA. There is an emphasis on research and development throughout the entire Air Liquide company. R&D targets the creation of not only industrial gases, but also gases that are used in products such as healthcare items, electronic chips, foods and chemicals. The major R&D groups within Air Liquide focus on analysis, bioresources , combustion, membranes, modeling, and the production of Hydrogen gas.As of 2009, the company is ranked 484 in the Fortune Global 500. Wikipedia.

Barthelemy H.,Air Liquide
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

A study of open literature was performed to determine the effects of high hydrogen purity and gas pressure (in the range of 700-1000 bar) on the hydrogen embrittlement of several metallic materials. A particular focus was given to carbon, low-alloy and stainless steels. Finally, suggestions are provided for future testing necessary to ensure the safety of hydrogen storage at 700 bar. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2013.5.6 | Award Amount: 4.05M | Year: 2014

Hydrogen is expected to be a highly valuable energy carrier for the 21st century as it should participate in answering main societal and economical concerns. However, in order to enable its extensive use as an energy vector, it is of primary importance to ensure its societal acceptance and thus its safety in use. To this aim, hydrogen storage and transportation must be secured. In particular today, the knowledge on composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV) behaviour when submitted to mechanical impacts is limited and existing standards are not well-appropriate to composite materials. The main objective of HYPACTOR is thus to provide recommendations for Regulation Codes and Standards (RCS) regarding the qualification of new designs of COPV and the procedures for periodic inspection in service of COPV subjected to mechanical impacts. To this aim, experimental work will be combined with feedback from experience in order to: - Understand and characterize the relationship between the impact, the damage and the loss of performance of COPV at short term and after further pressure loads in service; - Develop models to predict at least short term residual performance of the impacted COPV; - Assess relevant (non-destructive) inspection procedures and define pass-fail criteria for COPV in service subjected to mechanical impacts. Different applications will be considered: stationary application, transportable cylinders, bundles and tube trailers. The HYPACTOR project brings together partners with complementary expertise: experts in testing processes for compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) storage in full composite vessels (CEA, WRUT), a gas company operating CGH2 technologies (AIR LIQUIDE), a pressure vessel supplier (HEXAGON), experts in characterization, particularly non-destructive testing (ISA, WRUT) and experts in modelling (NTNU), leading actors in international RCS development (HEX, AL, ISA, CEA), and an expert in European R&D collaborative project management (ALMA).

Barthelemy H.,Air Liquide
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

The topic of this paper is to give an historical and technical overview of hydrogen storage vessels and to detail the specific issues and constraints of hydrogen energy uses. Hydrogen, as an industrial gas, is stored either as a compressed or as a refrigerated liquefied gas. Since the beginning of the last century, hydrogen is stored in seamless steel cylinders. At the end of the 60 s, tubes also made of seamless steels were used; specific attention was paid to hydrogen embrittlement in the 70 s. Aluminum cylinders were also used for hydrogen storage since the end of the 60 s, but their cost was higher compared to steel cylinders and smaller water capacity. To further increase the service pressure of hydrogen tanks or to slightly decrease the weight, metallic cylinders can be hoop-wrapped. Then, with specific developments for space or military applications, fully-wrapped tanks started to be developed in the 80 s. Because of their low weight, they started to be used in for portable applications: for vehicles (on-board storages of natural gas), for leisure applications (paint-ball) etc... These fully-wrapped composite tanks, named types III and IV are now developed for hydrogen energy storage; the requested pressure is very high (from 700 to 850 bar) leads to specific issues which are discussed. Each technology is described in term of materials, manufacturing technologies and approval tests. The specific issues due to very high pressure are depicted. Hydrogen can also be stored in liquid form (refrigerated liquefied gases). The first cryogenic vessels were used in the 60 s. In the following, the main characteristics of this type of storage will be indicated. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.1.6 | Award Amount: 10.52M | Year: 2013

In order to meet the increasing pressure to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, airlines are seeking alternative sources to power non-propulsive aircraft systems. The next generation of aircraft is heavily investigating the use of non-fossil fuel to generate electrical power for non-essential applications (NEA). Hydrogen fuel cells are actively being pursued as the most promising means of providing this power. Fuel cells also have the added benefits of no pollution, better efficiency than conventional systems, silent operating mode and low maintenance. The by-products from the fuel cells (heat, water and oxygen depleted air) will also have a positive impact on the global aircraft efficiency when they are harnessed and reused within the aircraft system. The HYCARUS project will design a generic PEM fuel cell system compatible of two NEA, then develop, test and demonstrate it against TRL6 . A secondary electrical power generation model for a business executive jet will be run. The application will be tested with the fuel cell system and the storage system under flying conditions. Furthermore, investigations will be made to understand how to capture and reuse the by-products. The HYCARUS project will extend the work already completed in the automotive sector, particularly for safety codes and standards, and develop these for use in airborne installation and applications. Improvements in terms of efficiency, reliability, performance, weight /volume ratio, safety, cost and lifetime under flight conditions at altitude and under low ambient temperatures (mainly in the air) will also be examined. The HYCARUS project also aims to foster a better and stronger cooperation between all the agents of the sector: Aeronautics equipment and systems manufacturers, aircraft manufacturers, system integrators and fuel cell technology suppliers.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: FCH2-IA | Phase: FCH-01.7-2014 | Award Amount: 67.88M | Year: 2015

Hydrogen Mobility Europe (H2ME) brings together Europes 4 most ambitious national initiatives on hydrogen mobility (Germany, Scandinavia, France and the UK). The project will expand their developing networks of HRS and the fleets of fuel cell vehicles (FCEVs) operating on Europes roads, to significantly expand the activities in each country and start the creation of a pan-European hydrogen fuelling station network. In creating a project of this scale, the FCH JU will create not only a physical but also a strategic link between the regions that are leading in the deployment of hydrogen. The project will also include observer countries (Austria, Belgium and the Netherlands), who will use the learnings from this project to develop their own hydrogen mobility strategies. The project is the most ambitious coordinated hydrogen deployment project attempted in Europe. The scale of this deployment will allow the consortium to: Trial a large fleet of FCEVs in diverse applications across Europe - 200 OEM FCEVs (Daimler and Hyundai) and 125 fuel cell range-extended vans (Symbio FCell collaborating with Renault) will be deployed Deploy 29 state of the art refuelling stations, using technology from the full breadth of Europes hydrogen refuelling station providers. The scale will ensure that stations will be lower cost than in previous projects and the breadth will ensure that Europes hydrogen station developers advance together Conduct a real world test of 4 national hydrogen mobility strategies and share learnings to support other countries strategy development Analyse the customer attitude to the FCEV proposition, with a focus on attitudes to the fuelling station networks as they evolve in each country Assess the performance of the refuelling stations and vehicles in order to provide data of a sufficient resolution to allow policy-makers, early adopters and the hydrogen mobility industry to validate the readiness of the technology for full commercial roll-out.

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