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Mumbai, India

Air India is the flag carrier airline of India owned by Air India Limited , a Government of India enterprise. It is the third largest airline in India in domestic market share, and operates a fleet of Airbus and Boeing aircraft serving various domestic and international airports. It is headquartered at the Indian Airlines House in New Delhi. Air India has two major domestic hubs at Indira Gandhi International Airport and Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, and secondary hubs at Chennai International Airport and Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport, Kolkata. The airline formerly operated a hub at Frankfurt Airport which was terminated on account of high costs. However, another international hub is being planned at the Dubai International Airport.Air India was once the largest operator in the Indian subcontinent with a market share of over 60%. Indifferent financial performance and service, labor trouble pushed it to fourth place in India, behind low cost carriers like IndiGo, SpiceJet, and its full service rival Jet Airways. Between September 2007 and May 2011, Air India's domestic market share declined from 19.2% to 14%, primarily because of stiff competition from private Indian carriers. However, after financial restructuring and enforcement of strict rules and regulations, the airlines showed signs of turning around. In March 2013, the airlines posted its first positive EBITDA after almost 6 years. The airlines bolstered its financial and physical performance with a 44 per cent slash in its operating losses in 2013-14 and an almost 20 per cent growth in its operating revenue since the previous financial year. As of January 2014, Air India is the third largest carrier in India, after IndiGo and Jet Airways with a market share of just above 19%.The airline was invited to be a part of the Star Alliance in 2007. Air India completed the merger with Indian Airlines and some part of the agreed upgrades in its service and membership systems by 2011. In August 2011, Air India's invitation to join Star Alliance was suspended as a result of its failure to meet the minimum standards for the membership. However, in October 2011, talks between the airline and Star Alliance resumed. On 13 December 2013, Star Alliance announced that Air India and the alliance have resumed the integration process and the airline became the 27th member of Star Alliance on 11 July 2014. Wikipedia.

Background: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of islands to the east of the Indian mainland. The Nicobar district in its southern part includes the Nancowry group. Very little is known about the dermatoses in this remote region and hence, this study was carried out at a community medical camp held in Kamorta on November 12, 2014. Aims: To study the pattern of dermatoses in Nicobarese attending a community medical camp at Nancowry.Subjects and Methods: All Nicobarese, predominantly mongoloid, attending a multi-specialty community medical camp at Kamorta on November 12, 2014, were initially seen by a general practitioner. Persons with dermatologic complaints or the presence of skin lesions were then seen by a single dermatologist. Results: A total of 375 patients were seen. Out of these, 113 cases (30.13%) had a skin disorder. Females comprised 50.44% and males 49.56% of the cases. The mean age was 21.28 years. The most common dermatoses were infections and infestations comprising 53 cases (46.9%) of which fungal infections were seen in 25 cases (22.12%), pyodermas in 12 cases (10.62%), scabies in 9 cases (7.96%), warts in 4 cases (3.54%), 1 case each of molluscum contagiosum, herpes zoster, and pediculosis capitis (0.88%) followed by eczema in 20 cases (17.70%), acne in 13 cases (11.5%), papular urticaria in 9 cases (7.96%), and psoriasis in 3 cases (2.65%). Miscellaneous dermatoses made up the rest of the 15 cases (13.27%). Conclusion: The pattern of dermatoses seen among the Nicobarese is quite similar with respect to the prevalence of infections in other regions of India, especially humid regions such as Assam, coastal Karnataka, and Kolkata and much higher than arid regions such as the deserts of Rajasthan. Source

Magon N.,AIR INDIA | Chauhan M.,Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Government Medical College
North American Journal of Medical Sciences

India leads the world with largest number of diabetics earning the dubious distinction of "the diabetes capital of the world." Diabetes is associated with maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The number of pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes is increasing, mainly from an increase in type 2 diabetes, but also an increase in type 1 diabetes. Overall, type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5% to 10% of all diabetes outside of pregnancy, and in pregnancy put together with type 2 account for 10% of diabetic pregnancies. Management of the pregnant diabetic woman is a complex task that ideally begins before conception. Specific attention is required for diabetic pregnancies in different trimesters of pregnancy. Diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes, can be a challenge in pregnancy, but with education, close monitoring, and latest therapeutic modalities, these women can have healthy newborns. Close attention to diet, glycemic control, metabolic stresses, and early diagnosis and monitoring of complications can make pregnancy a successful experience for women with diabetes. A MedLine search was done to review relevant articles in English literature on diabetes and pregnancy, and specific issues related to pregnancy in type 1 diabetes were reviewed. Source

Kulshrestha V.,Joint Replacement Center | Kumar S.,AIR INDIA
Journal of Arthroplasty

The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) recommended routine anticoagulation for thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty. We compared results of routine anticoagulation Vs risk stratified approach for Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis after TKA in terms of symptomatic DVT and wound complications. Nine hundred TKAs done in 673 patients were randomized after DVT risk screening to routine anticoagulation (n = 450) or to risk stratification (n = 450) and selective anticoagulation. 194 patients in the risk screening group received only Aspirin. Primary outcome was symptomatic DVT and wound complication. This randomized study showed that the symptomatic DVT rates after TKA were similar whether patients were routinely anticoagulated or selectively anticoagulated after risk screening. However there was a significantly higher incidence of wound complications (P< 0.014) after routine anticoagulation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology

Aerosol samples of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were collected from 38 sampling locations in and around the industrial area. The 24 h average mass concentration of PM(10) and PM(2.5) was 137.5 and 61.5 μg/m(3) respectively during summer, 122 and 97.5 μg/m(3) respectively in winter and 70 and 54 μg/m(3) respectively during post monsoon season. The relative contribution of coarse, fine and ultrafine particle to ambient air was analyzed for its temporal and seasonal variability in an industrialized area. This paper aims to establish baseline between PM(10) and PM(2.5) mass concentration levels. Source

The origin of very low frequency (VLF) oscillations in the power spectra of heart rate variability (HRV) is controversial with possible mechanisms involving thermoregulation and/or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recently, a major contribution from vagal influences has been suggested. The present study investigated the behaviour of VLF (0.004-0.040 Hz) components of HRV power spectra in a group of healthy male volunteers during their exposure to (1) dry, supine, immersion in thermo-neutral water for 6 h (n = 7) and (2) non-hypoxic hypobaria (breathing 40-60% oxygen at 15 000′ simulated in a decompression chamber) for 5 h (n = 15). The two manoeuvres are established to increase vagal outflow. During both the manoeuvres, all the frequency domain indices of HRV exhibited a significant increase. Increase in HRV was much more than that in the R-R interval. At 6 h of immersion, the R-R interval increased by ∼15% but the total power increased ∼fourfold. Similarly, at 5 h of exposure to hypobaria, total power increased ∼twofold with a very modest increase in an R-R of ∼9%. Increase in spectral power was appreciable even after normalization with mean R-R 2. Increase in VLF during immersion was more than reported during enalaprilat blockade of angiotensin convertase enzyme. Plasma renin activity did not vary during hypobaria. There was a significant increase in pNN50, an established marker of cardiac vagal activity. Centre frequencies of the spectra and slope (β) of the relation between log(PSD) and log(frequency) did not change. Results were supportive of the notion that the parasympathetic system is pre-potent to influence slower (than respiratory) frequency components in HRV spectrum. Additionally, such an effect was without a change in the time constant of effector responses or pacemaker frequencies of VLF and LF periodicities and HRV was not a simple linear surrogate for cardiac vagal effects. An invariance of spectral exponent (β) ruled out contamination of VLF and LF spectra from fractal power as an alternate explanation. © 2011 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source

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