Mumbai, India
Mumbai, India

Air India is the flag carrier airline of India owned by Air India Limited , a Government of India enterprise. It is the third largest airline in India in domestic market share, and operates a fleet of Airbus and Boeing aircraft serving various domestic and international airports. It is headquartered at the Indian Airlines House in New Delhi. Air India has two major domestic hubs at Indira Gandhi International Airport and Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, and secondary hubs at Chennai International Airport and Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport, Kolkata. The airline formerly operated a hub at Frankfurt Airport which was terminated on account of high costs. However, another international hub is being planned at the Dubai International Airport.Air India was once the largest operator in the Indian subcontinent with a market share of over 60%. Indifferent financial performance and service, labor trouble pushed it to fourth place in India, behind low cost carriers like IndiGo, SpiceJet, and its full service rival Jet Airways. Between September 2007 and May 2011, Air India's domestic market share declined from 19.2% to 14%, primarily because of stiff competition from private Indian carriers. However, after financial restructuring and enforcement of strict rules and regulations, the airlines showed signs of turning around. In March 2013, the airlines posted its first positive EBITDA after almost 6 years. The airlines bolstered its financial and physical performance with a 44 per cent slash in its operating losses in 2013-14 and an almost 20 per cent growth in its operating revenue since the previous financial year. As of January 2014, Air India is the third largest carrier in India, after IndiGo and Jet Airways with a market share of just above 19%.The airline was invited to be a part of the Star Alliance in 2007. Air India completed the merger with Indian Airlines and some part of the agreed upgrades in its service and membership systems by 2011. In August 2011, Air India's invitation to join Star Alliance was suspended as a result of its failure to meet the minimum standards for the membership. However, in October 2011, talks between the airline and Star Alliance resumed. On 13 December 2013, Star Alliance announced that Air India and the alliance have resumed the integration process and the airline became the 27th member of Star Alliance on 11 July 2014. Wikipedia.

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Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2017

Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry. © 2017 Indian Journal of Dermatology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

Godson L.,AIR INDIA | Raja B.,Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing | Mohan Lal D.,AIR INDIA | Wongwises S.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

A colloidal mixture of nano-sized particles in a base fluid, called nanofluids, tremendously enhances the heat transfer characteristics of the original fluid, and is ideally suited for practical applications due to its marvelous characteristics. This article addresses the unique features of nanofluids, such as enhancement of heat transfer, improvement in thermal conductivity, increase in surface volume ratio, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, etc. In addition, the article summarizes the recent research in experimental and theoretical studies on forced and free convective heat transfer in nanofluids, their thermo-physical properties and their applications, and identifies the challenges and opportunities for future research. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kulshrestha V.,AIR INDIA | Roy T.,AIR INDIA | Audige L.,AO Clinical Investigation and Documentation
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma | Year: 2011

Objectives: To compare results of primary internal fixation of acute displaced midshaft clavicle fractures with those managed nonoperatively in terms of fracture union and functional Outcome. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Level II military trauma center. Patients/Participants: Seventy-three patients (civilian and military) between 20 and 50 years of age with displaced midshaft clavicle fractures were allocated either to the operative (n = 45) or nonoperative (n = 28) group. Intervention: Patients in the nonoperative group were managed by simple sling immobilization, whereas in the operative group, fractures were reduced and fixed with a contoured reconstruction plate. Main Outcome Measurements: The patients were actively followed up during an 18-month period. Primary Outcome measures were the rates of nonunion and symptomatic malunion; secondary Outcomes included the assessment of the Constant score and the overall local complication rate. Results: The 18-month follow-up rate was 90%. All fractures in the operative group united compared with eight nonunions (29%) in the nonoperative group (P = 0.002). Ten symptomatic malunions (36%) occurred in the nonoperative group, whereas only two (4%) were reported for the operative group (P = 0.0008). Constant shoulder scores were significantly better for the operative group at all follow-ups (P < 0.0001). All six operative complications were implant-related. Conclusions: In this prospective cohort study, primary open reduction and internal plate fixation of acute displaced midshaft clavicular fractures resulted in improved Outcomes and a decreased rate of nonunion and symptomatic malunion compared with nonoperative treatment. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology | Year: 2012

Aerosol samples of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were collected from 38 sampling locations in and around the industrial area. The 24 h average mass concentration of PM(10) and PM(2.5) was 137.5 and 61.5 μg/m(3) respectively during summer, 122 and 97.5 μg/m(3) respectively in winter and 70 and 54 μg/m(3) respectively during post monsoon season. The relative contribution of coarse, fine and ultrafine particle to ambient air was analyzed for its temporal and seasonal variability in an industrialized area. This paper aims to establish baseline between PM(10) and PM(2.5) mass concentration levels.

Subramaniyan R.,AIR INDIA
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2016

Background: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of islands to the east of the Indian mainland. The Nicobar district in its southern part includes the Nancowry group. Very little is known about the dermatoses in this remote region and hence, this study was carried out at a community medical camp held in Kamorta on November 12, 2014. Aims: To study the pattern of dermatoses in Nicobarese attending a community medical camp at Nancowry.Subjects and Methods: All Nicobarese, predominantly mongoloid, attending a multi-specialty community medical camp at Kamorta on November 12, 2014, were initially seen by a general practitioner. Persons with dermatologic complaints or the presence of skin lesions were then seen by a single dermatologist. Results: A total of 375 patients were seen. Out of these, 113 cases (30.13%) had a skin disorder. Females comprised 50.44% and males 49.56% of the cases. The mean age was 21.28 years. The most common dermatoses were infections and infestations comprising 53 cases (46.9%) of which fungal infections were seen in 25 cases (22.12%), pyodermas in 12 cases (10.62%), scabies in 9 cases (7.96%), warts in 4 cases (3.54%), 1 case each of molluscum contagiosum, herpes zoster, and pediculosis capitis (0.88%) followed by eczema in 20 cases (17.70%), acne in 13 cases (11.5%), papular urticaria in 9 cases (7.96%), and psoriasis in 3 cases (2.65%). Miscellaneous dermatoses made up the rest of the 15 cases (13.27%). Conclusion: The pattern of dermatoses seen among the Nicobarese is quite similar with respect to the prevalence of infections in other regions of India, especially humid regions such as Assam, coastal Karnataka, and Kolkata and much higher than arid regions such as the deserts of Rajasthan.

The origin of very low frequency (VLF) oscillations in the power spectra of heart rate variability (HRV) is controversial with possible mechanisms involving thermoregulation and/or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recently, a major contribution from vagal influences has been suggested. The present study investigated the behaviour of VLF (0.004-0.040 Hz) components of HRV power spectra in a group of healthy male volunteers during their exposure to (1) dry, supine, immersion in thermo-neutral water for 6 h (n = 7) and (2) non-hypoxic hypobaria (breathing 40-60% oxygen at 15 000′ simulated in a decompression chamber) for 5 h (n = 15). The two manoeuvres are established to increase vagal outflow. During both the manoeuvres, all the frequency domain indices of HRV exhibited a significant increase. Increase in HRV was much more than that in the R-R interval. At 6 h of immersion, the R-R interval increased by ∼15% but the total power increased ∼fourfold. Similarly, at 5 h of exposure to hypobaria, total power increased ∼twofold with a very modest increase in an R-R of ∼9%. Increase in spectral power was appreciable even after normalization with mean R-R 2. Increase in VLF during immersion was more than reported during enalaprilat blockade of angiotensin convertase enzyme. Plasma renin activity did not vary during hypobaria. There was a significant increase in pNN50, an established marker of cardiac vagal activity. Centre frequencies of the spectra and slope (β) of the relation between log(PSD) and log(frequency) did not change. Results were supportive of the notion that the parasympathetic system is pre-potent to influence slower (than respiratory) frequency components in HRV spectrum. Additionally, such an effect was without a change in the time constant of effector responses or pacemaker frequencies of VLF and LF periodicities and HRV was not a simple linear surrogate for cardiac vagal effects. An invariance of spectral exponent (β) ruled out contamination of VLF and LF spectra from fractal power as an alternate explanation. © 2011 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

Kumar P.,Atmospheric and Oceanic science Group | Harish Kumar K.P.,AIR INDIA | Pal P.K.,Atmospheric and Oceanic science Group
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

The Indian Space Research Organisation launched the Oceansat-2 scatterometer (OSCAT) for atmospheric and oceanographic applications. In this paper, a case study has been performed to assess the impact of OSCAT-retrieved wind vectors on the simulation of tropical cyclone Phet over the Arabian Sea. Three-dimensional variational data assimilation of the Weather Research and Forecasting model is used for this purpose. In addition to OSCAT winds, wind speed and precipitable water derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) are also used for assimilation to evaluate the impact of scatterometer and radiometer data on tropical cyclone prediction. Results show that an ∼60-km track error is observed in control and TMI experiments when compared with Joint Typhoon Warning Center observed cyclone center at 1800 UTC 01 June 2010. An approximately 40-km track error is determined in the initial center position of OSCAT experiments. The mean track error forecast is less in OSCAT experiments (∼ 80 km) in comparison with TMI experiments (∼ 110 km). Only OSCAT data experiments are able to predict the track of the cyclone toward the Oman coast. Assimilation of scatterometer wind direction improves the track forecast; but it degrades the forecast of the intensity, maximum magnitude, and evolution of the cyclone. None of these experiments are able to capture the observed minimum sea level pressure (964 hPa at 1200 UTC 02 June 2010) accurately. TMI experiments are slightly better than OSCAT experiments in capturing the intensity of cyclone Phet, whereas wind direction from OSCAT improves the track forecast of the cyclone. © 1980-2012 IEEE.

Kulshrestha V.,Army Hospital R and R | Kumar S.,AIR INDIA
Journal of Arthroplasty | Year: 2013

The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) recommended routine anticoagulation for thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty. We compared results of routine anticoagulation Vs risk stratified approach for Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis after TKA in terms of symptomatic DVT and wound complications. Nine hundred TKAs done in 673 patients were randomized after DVT risk screening to routine anticoagulation (n = 450) or to risk stratification (n = 450) and selective anticoagulation. 194 patients in the risk screening group received only Aspirin. Primary outcome was symptomatic DVT and wound complication. This randomized study showed that the symptomatic DVT rates after TKA were similar whether patients were routinely anticoagulated or selectively anticoagulated after risk screening. However there was a significantly higher incidence of wound complications (P< 0.014) after routine anticoagulation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

“We are storytelling animals and the actual telling of stories — that ancient aural mesmerism of the human voice — continues to bewitch us somehow more thoroughly than any other medium of tale-transmission. This, perhaps, is why podcasts have emerged as a storytelling modality capable of particular enchantment — a marriage of the primeval and the present,” writes Maria Popova in her piece on nine podcasts for a fuller life. Possibly this is why podcasts have become a valuable tool of information consumption and entertainment for those who care to break away from the constant influx of the hyper visual world we inhabit. The podcast industry may have reached its summit of relevance with the smashing success of Serial last year in USA, but American audiences have always enjoyed a rich and varied tradition of the same for as long as radio has been around. In contrast, the government regulates radio policies in India with an iron fist, allowing for little more than music and light hearted bantering. Analysis and commentary of most sorts are banned. Before the advent of the digital life, there was little that could be done to defy these impositions. The oral internet, being outside the purview of these strict censorship norms, is now finally open to experiment with form, content and commentary. The past decade has witnessed an encouraging explosion of a handful of podcasts in India. But their subject matters are niche and their audiences comprised of scant pockets, thereby nipping in the bud any chances of generating profitable, or even sustainable, ad revenues (the only revenue option for now). The result being that all those at the helm of podcasting in India do it as a secondary passion, maintaining day jobs to pay their bills. Podcasting may be a nascent industry in India, but there was little positive indication that it would amount to anything more than that. This sentiment is shared by Rajesh Tahil and Tariq Ansari, the Co-founders of Audiomatic, India’s newest and arguably most ambitious yet podcast startup. “I don’t think podcasting is really an industry yet. That is the real challenge for us. We are trying to create a space for ourselves in the life of a consumer who is saturated with choices. However, I think radio’s unique ability to allow people to do other things while they listen and tell stories that does not SHOW everything but draws on their imagination is a key success factor,” says Rajesh. Tariq Ansari was at the helm of the newspaper ‘Mid Day’ before moving onto becoming a radio entrepreneur. Having been a prime player in the growth of private radio in India, he now owns and operates the network Radio One. Rajesh Tahil served as the CEO of Radio One and publisher of Mid Day. Seven years ago he branched off to start his own firm Hill Road Media, a publishing and content outsourcing company. But the two friends share more than a common career trajectory, even as their respective professional paths parallel the evolution of media in India- from radio to print to digital and now oral digital. They share a deep passion for this oral medium of storytelling and are committed to discover and uphold its potential. This commitment is what oversaw the birth of Audiomatic. “As we worked on other radio projects, we often talked about how, in the west, there are so many good (non-music) radio programmes made by NPR, BBC etc. and more recently by podcasters that cover a fascinating range of subjects across genres, while being supposedly ‘handicapped’ by having only ‘audio’ and manage to be fantastic using techniques from storytelling and narrative journalism. Given a combination of the need for something like this in India and our ability to execute it, we decided that we would be either the incredibly foolish or terribly wise people to try this out here,” explains Rajesh. Once they decided to go ahead, picking a name was easy. “We wanted a simple name, one that sounds good; one that suggests both audio and digital and Audiomatic seemed to work.” The founders had certain genres in mind that they wanted to cover initially and then an overall map that they would like to build-out to in the next 18-24 months. “So initially we decided on science, current-affairs and food but plan to cover many more genres in the coming months. The focus has been on storytelling and whether it is food (The Real Food Podcast), current affairs (Ask Aakar Anything) or Science (The Intersection), we believe that the ability to tell compelling stories is what will get people into this medium,” says Rajesh. Take Audiomatic’s science podcast The Intersection for example. The show, which is inspired by its popular American counterpart RadioLab, features painstakingly curated and researched topics that are obscure but interesting. The first episode discussed ‘A blood group so rare that it once had to be ‘exported’- the mysterious Bombay Blood Group and the handful of people strewn across the globe who are afflicted with it. The Intersection’s latest episode explores how the recently excavated bodies of four people, who died four thousand years ago, may finally be able to explain the enduring mysteries of the Harappan civilization. In the frivolous, but sarcastically biting, current affairs podcast ‘Ask Aakar Anything,’ veteran journalist Aakar Patel fields question like how he would career coach Rahul Gandhi, is Air India the worst airline in the world and why  Deepika Padukone is his favourite actress. In the first episode of ‘The Real Food Podcast’, Vikram Doctor traced the mind boggling lineage of India’s mango royalty- the Alphonso. In the latest one he goes down memory lane chronicling the rise of everyone’s favourite butter Amul. Audiomatic founders conducted an unusual sample of market research to determine the viability of their product. “We looked at data for the increase in commute times of people across three-four metros and what people do on these commutes. We saw an opportunity for ourselves in this data.” Podcasts are experiencing a renewed surge of popularity in the west. But there is there hope for a similar outcome in India? For Rajesh, there are two ways to look at this: “If the underlying reasons for success in the west are the same as here-longer commute times, ability to multi-task while listening, availability of good content, etc.; then eventually Indian audiences will take to them. But it will take some time. However the podcast audience in the US is built on the back of a very very robust public radio ecosystem that creates a habit for non-music radio and the lack of that here in India could be a challenge.” Though podcasts have been around for decades in the West, and have enjoyed enviable patronage, the wild success of Serial in 2014 saw a frenzied gold rush. Does Audiomatic seem poised at the precipice of such a gold rush, being at the forefront of a virtually untapped market like India? For Rajesh, the question is premature. “Not so sure about a gold rush, but if more people get in, it is a great thing. Each new podcast will expand the market with the listeners it acquires and that’s how categories grow.” Audiomatic is self-funded by the founders. Its plans of scaling depend entirely upon its audience reception. “We hope to have 10-12 of our own podcasts in the near future and then double that through alliances and partnerships. We are hoping to offer a significant numbers across the network that allows for monetisation,” says Rajesh. He continues, “Globally the industry is well on its way as it hit its inflection point sometime last year, I think. In India it all depends on how things go over the next two to three years – you need to have critical mass in order to be able to generate the funds that power the industry.” Tariq and Rajesh are heartened by the response they have received so far. “We are 4 weeks old and the numbers are higher than we expected. What is even more encouraging is the number of high-profile potential partners who have gotten in touch wanting to be part of this venture which is a validation of sorts,” says Rajesh. Since there is little precedent to running a podcast venture in India, one presumes that navigating the novel challenges that come Audiomatic’s way might prove intensely daunting. But Rajesh is unfazed. “I think we are in the learning phase of our business. No challenge is extra-ordinary because we have no pre-conceived notions.” Being an entrepreneur can be a lonely job. But the ability to create something new and hopefully relevant is what keeps the duo motivated. That and because starting up keeps your mind young. “It’s like yoga for the brain,” Rajesh philosophizes. A parting epiphany before signing off is his advice to fellow upstarts. “Keep at it. You will figure it out eventually. Even if you don’t, the journey is probably as much fun as the destination.” [This post has been updated]

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