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Bedong, Malaysia

Chidambaram R.,AIMST University
Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery | Year: 2015

Chronic kidney disease, (CKD) a gradual and inevitable deterioration in renal function, is the disease with the most associations in dentistry. Dosage adjustment is one amongst the vital elements to be familiar with during their oral care. CKD patients take extended duration to filter out medications, therefore dosage must always be tailored under the supervision of nephrologist. The relished benefits from antibiotic could transform as anti-microbial resistance on their abuse and nephrotoxic when contraindicated drugs are encouraged. New patented drug belonging to oxazoliodine group has driven the researchers to handle the emerging AMR. The present communication discusses the pharmacological factors influencing in prescribing the antibiotics for CKD patient from the dentist’s point of view. The formulas destined for calculating the optimal dosage of antibiotics have been documented to aid oral physicians. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Chidambaram R.,AIMST University
Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2015

Complexity in the health status of patients with kidney disease forces to seek the aid of medical devices such as the central venous catheter (CVC) that is essential in order to perform hemodialysis. Elementary information about the CVC, as required for the oral healthcare professionals, has been documented so as to serve as a medical manual. This communication is the first of its kind that conjointly delineates vital considerations, which precede dental maneuvers in patients implanted with a CVC. © Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2015. Source

Ramasamy C.,AIMST University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2014

Antibiotics are used in dentistry to treat an existing infection therapeutically or to prevent an infection prophylactically. They are cardinal in the management and prophylaxis of infection in patients at risk of experiencing microbial disease. Endodontics is the field of choice where antibiotics are used extensively. In addition, they are used to aid the host defences in the elimination of remaining bacteria. Most frequently, antibiotics are used and misused by dentists themselves. Dentists need to update the occurent knowledge of pharmacology, pertaining to antibiotics and its indications in dental office. The present communication highlights the relative contraindications of antibiotics for an endodontist in routine dental practice. Source

Balakumar P.,AIMST University | Jagadeesh G.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2014

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disorders. Pharmacologic interventions targeting the RAS cascade have led to the discovery of renin inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and AT1receptor blockers (ARBs) to treat hypertension and some cardiovascular and renal disorders. Mutagenesis and modeling studies have revealed that differential functional outcomes are the results of multiple active states conformed by the AT1receptor upon interaction with angiotensin II (Ang II). The binding of agonist is dependent on both extracellular and intramembrane regions of the receptor molecule, and as a consequence occupies more extensive area of the receptor than a non-peptide antagonist. Both agonist and antagonist bind to the same intramembrane regions to interfere with each other’s binding to exhibit competitive, surmountable interaction. The nature of interactions with the amino acids in the receptor is different for each of the ARBs given the small differences in the molecular structure between drugs. AT1receptors attain different conformation states after binding various Ang II analogues, resulting in variable responses through activation of multiple signaling pathways. These include both classical and non-classical pathways mediated through growth factor receptor transactivations, and provide cross-communication between downstream signaling molecules. The structural requirements for AT1receptors to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 through G proteins, or G proteinindependently through β-arrestin, are different. We review the structural and functional characteristics of Ang II and its analogs and antagonists, and their interaction with amino acid residues in the AT1receptor. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology Printed in Great Britain. Source

Balakumar P.,AIMST University | Jagadeesh G.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2014

Ang II, the primary effector pleiotropic hormone of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) cascade, mediates physiological control of blood pressure and electrolyte balance through its action on vascular tone, aldosterone secretion, renal sodium absorption, water intake, sympathetic activity and vasopressin release. It affects the function of most of the organs far beyond blood pressure control including heart, blood vessels, kidney and brain, thus, causing both beneficial and deleterious effects. However, the protective axis of the RAS composed of ACE2, Ang (1-7), alamandine, and Mas and MargD receptors might oppose some harmful effects of Ang II and might promote beneficial cardiovascular effects. Newly identified RAS family peptides, Ang A and angioprotectin, further extend the complexities in understanding the cardiovascular physiopathology of RAS. Most of the diverse actions of Ang II are mediated by AT1 receptors, which couple to classical Gq/11 protein and activate multiple downstream signals, including PKC, ERK1/2, Raf, tyrosine kinases, receptor tyrosine kinases (EGFR, PDGF, insulin receptor), nuclear factor κB and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Receptor activation via G12/13 stimulates Rho-kinase, which causes vascular contraction and hypertrophy. The AT1 receptor activation also stimulates G protein-independent signaling pathways such as β-arrestin-mediated MAPK activation and Src-JAK/STAT. AT1 receptor-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase releases ROS, resulting in the activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors and stimulation of small G proteins such as Ras, Rac and RhoA. The components of the RAS and the major Ang II-induced signaling cascades of AT1 receptors are reviewed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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