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Aimone-Martin C.,Aimone Martin Associates LLC | Meins B.,Aimone Martin Associates LLC | Lauer J.,FDNY Explosives Unit | Brenta R.,FDNY Explosives Unit
Journal of Explosives Engineering | Year: 2014

Cathy Aimone-Martin, Brent Meins, James Lauer, and Robert Brenta share their views on the response of tall structures to close-in urban blasting in New York City. They summarize four years of measurements of tall structure motions to high-frequency close-in urban blasting in New York. They reveal that 22 tall structures have been instrumented with velocity sensors to compute global wall strains till May 2014. The goal of this effort is to assist the Fire Department of New York (FDNY) to develop a strain-based damage criterion for mid- and high-rise urban structures and a modified frequency-based peak particle velocity criteria similar to the safe blasting curve developed by the US Bureau of Mines for 1- and 2-story residential structures. It is envisioned that the development of a close-in urban blasting criteria for tall structures that considers historic and landmark buildings may serve as a model for other urban environments. Source


Busch C.L.,University of New Mexico | Aimone-Martin C.T.,Aimone Martin Associates LLC | Tarefder R.A.,University of New Mexico
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2014

This study obtained ground response data of clay soils subjected to airblast loading through small-scale field experiments. A total of 24 explosive blasts were conducted on clay soils. Binary explosive charges were suspended above the soil with explosive masses ranging from 0.9 to 100.9 g and suspended heights ranging from 2.5 to 7.6 cm (1 to 3 in) above the clay surface. Results included air overpressure, ground vibration, and crater geometry data. Relationships were developed to describe vibration attenuation and the amount of energy generated by the blast events. Crater geometry was related to explosive mass to characterize the energy transmitted into the soil. The experiment results provided a data set with which to predict the results of air blast loads on clay soils. © ASCE 2014. Source


Busch C.L.,University of New Mexico | Aimone-Martin C.T.,Aimone Martin Associates LLC | Tarefder R.A.,University of New Mexico
International Journal of Geomechanics | Year: 2016

This study examined the effects of small-scale airblast experiments on clay soils and compared experimental results with numerical solutions obtained through finite-element simulations. Thirty-three suspended explosive blasts were conducted above clay soils with explosive masses ranging from 0.9 to 100.9 g and suspended heights ranging from 2.5 to 7.6 cm. The experiments were instrumented with airblast sensors and subsurface triaxial geophones to measure vibration energy and air overpressure from the blast events. Laboratory tests were conducted on the experimental soils to obtain geotechnical and shear strength soil properties. Twodimensional (2D), arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite-element simulations were performed using a finite-element software program and compared with the experimental results. Soils were modeled using the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) soil material model. Air overpressure, ground vibration, and crater geometry data obtained from the experimental blasts were compared with the numerical simulation results. The first-order simulated results compared fairly well with the experimental results, with the exception of simulated crater diameters, which were 1.5 times larger than experimental results. However, stress-response instabilities were observed in the model after the initial stress pulse had propagated through the soil, and the model did not appear to capture postpeak behavior. Therefore, the soil model used in the study is recommended for use only as a first estimate for capturing the response of airblast loading of clay soils in a 2D ALE analysis. More recent models, such as a cap plasticity model or the disturbed state concept (DSC) model, are more applicable if stress path and postpeak behaviors are to be adequately captured. In addition, a threedimensional analysis of ALE coupled with Lagrange elements should be considered for capturing a more accurate strength response. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Busch C.L.,University of New Mexico | Aimone-Martin C.T.,Aimone Martin Associates LLC | Tarefder R.A.,University of New Mexico
Journal of Testing and Evaluation | Year: 2015

This study focused on the ground response of clay soils in confined conditions subjected to explosive airblast loading through small-scale field experiments. Laboratory testing was also performed to characterize the soils used during field testing and obtain material properties for future work. A total of 33 suspended explosive blasts were conducted with explosive masses ranging from 0.9 to 100.9 g and two heights of suspension of 2.5-7.6 cm above the clay surface. The field instrumentation consisted of subsurface triaxial geophones and surface airblast sensors. Results of the study included surface crater geometry measurements, ground vibration data, and air overpressure data. Crater diameters ranged from 3.8 to 22.9 cm, while crater depth ranged from 0.8 to 8.4 cm. Crater volumes ranged from 32.1 to 1720.6 cm3. Peak particle velocity (PPV) decreased with depth and ranged from 1.0 to 40.2 cm/s. The results of the experiment provided a data set that could be used to predict the effects of airblast loads on clay soils. Copyright © 2014 ASTM International. Source

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