Indian Journal of Palliative Care | Year: 2010
Background: Communication is a key component of palliative care. The area of pediatric palliative care is emotionally distressing for families and healthcare providers. Inadequate communication can increase the stress and lead to mistrust or miscommunication. Materials and Methods: Reviewing the literature on communication between physicians and patients, we identified several barriers to communication such as paternalism in medicine, inadequate training in communication skills, knowledge of the grieving process, special issues related to care of children and cultural barriers. In order to fill the void in area of cultural communication, a study questionnaire was administered to consecutive families of children receiving chemotherapy at a large, north Indian referral hospital to elicit parental views on communication. Results: Most parents had a protective attitude and favored collusion, however, appreciated truthfulness in prognostication and counseling by physicians; though parents expressed dissatisfaction on timing and lack of prior information by counseling team. Conclusion: Training programs in communication skills should teach doctors how to elicit patients' preferences for information. Systematic training programs with feedback can decrease physicians stress and burnout. More research for understanding a culturally appropriate communication framework is needed.
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2014
Custody related deaths are not uncommon in India. A meticulous autopsy becomes a necessary part of the investigation. A retrospective study was done to analyze the prevalence and demographic pattern of custodial related deaths, whose autopsy were conducted at AIIMS, New Delhi. The autopsy reports of 13 years (1999-2011) were analyzed retrospectively. There were total 15 cases of custodial related deaths. All cases were male and majority was in the age group of 25-35 years (8 cases). 9 cases belonged to Hindu and 6 cases belong to Muslim. 10 cases died due to natural disease and 3 cases due to unnatural causes. 10 cases died in the hospital and 5 cases in the custody. Among the 3 unnatural deaths 1 died due to hanging, 1 due to fall from height and 1 from blunt injuries. In 2 cases no exact cause of death could be determined. In India there is overcrowding of prisoners in the jail. In spite of medical screening of the prisoners the infectious diseases like TB is very prevalent in jails. The national human rights commission is taking up the issues to improve the jail conditions in India.
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences | Year: 2011
Background: Split cord malformation (SCM) is a rare condition. With decreasing incidence of neural tube defect (NTD) in the West, the reports of SCM are getting lesser and lesser. However, in India, spinal dysraphism is still a major problem encountered by the neurosurgeons. Objective: Our aim was to analyze 300 patients of SCM for their clinical features, radiological findings and outcome of surgery, which can throw light on the subject to others, who have less scope of finding these cases frequently. Materials and Methods: Over a 16-year period, we encountered 300 cases of SCM at AIIMS. Over the same period, more than 1500 cases of NTD were managed. SCM was noticed in 20% of cases with NTD. Skin stigmata were noted in two-third of the cases, and scoliosis and foot deformity were observed in 50% and 48% cases, respectively. Motor and sensory deficits were observed in 80% and 70% cases, respectively. Commonest site affected was lumbar or dorsolumbar (55% and 23%, respectively). In 3% cases, it was cervical in location. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a large number of anomalies like lipoma, neuroenteric cyst, thick filum and dermoid or epidermoid cysts. All the patients were surgically treated. In type I, bony spurs were excised, and in type II, bands tethering the cord were released. Associated anomalies were managed in the same sitting. Patients were followed up from 3 months to 3 years. Results: Overall improvement was noticed in 50% and stabilization in 44% cases and deterioration of neurological status was recorded in 6% cases. However, 50% of those who deteriorated improved to preop status prior to discharge, 7-10 days following surgery. Conclusions: SCM is rare and not many large series are available. We operated 300 cases and noticed a large number of associated anomalies and also multilevel and multisite splits. Improvement or stabilization was noted in 94% and deterioration in 6% cases. We recommended prophylactic surgery for our asymptomatic patients.
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences | Year: 2011
Background: Anterior encephaloceles are rare conditions. Except for a few places from South East Asia, no large series has been published in the World literature. Materials and Methods: At AIIMS, we have managed 133 cases over a 40-year-period from 1971 to 2010. Frontoethmoidal type was the most frequent, noticed in 104 patients, followed by nasopharyngeal nasal in 12 and orbital encephaloceles in 6 patients. Observation: Ten patients were adults over the age of 18 years and 15 patients were between 5 and 18 years of age. Swelling over the nose was reported in all 104 patients with frontoethmoid type. In nasopharyngeal type, patients presented with respiratory problem. Patients with orbital mass had proptosis, on the side of encephalocele. Computed tomography (CT)/Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 127 patients, which was able to delineate the bone defect and associated brain anomalies. All the patients were subjected to repair of encephalocele. Patients with hypertelorism required orbital osteotomies and correction of deformity. Outcome: There were four deaths, all prior to 2000. No death was encountered in the last 10 years. CSF leak was the commonest postoperative complication, noticed in 24 patients. Overall cosmetic outcome was good.
Mishra S.,AIIMS |
Chaturvedi V.,GB Pant Hospital
Indian Heart Journal | Year: 2015
Physicians in an attempt to give their patients the best possible care need to be updated on the evolving body of scientific research, trials, case reports, and combine this evidence with their own clinical experience keeping in mind each individual patient's circumstances and preferences. To address this felt need, guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to help clinicians make management decisions. While a multitude of guidelines are available from developed world they might not exactly fit into developing world context. Thus a host of fresh guidelines might be required to fill this void or the existing guidelines modified (supplemented, altered or deleted) to be relevant to this part of the world. © 2015 Cardiological Society of India.